Conventional lithography techniques usually release a great amount of hazardous chemical wastes from the fabrication process, which pose a threat to both the environment and human beings. The use of chemicals also restrict the use of polymer substrates because of their low chemical resistance.
In Nano Letters, the Advanced Nanoscale Engineering Group, led by Professor Harish Bhaskaran, demonstrate a substantial, mechanical, bilayer lithography that uses just water for development and lift-off. This minimises the use of chemicals at the source.
The approach has been proved to be suitable for writing patterns from nanoscale to microscale on both rigid and flexible substrates.