Understanding the conversion mechanism and performance of monodisperse FeF2 nanocrystal cathodes.
The application of transition metal fluorides as energy-dense cathode materials for lithium ion batteries has been hindered by inadequate understanding of their electrochemical capabilities and limitations. Here, we present an ideal system for mechanistic study through the colloidal synthesis of single-crystalline, monodisperse iron(II) fluoride nanorods. Near theoretical capacity (570 mA h g-1) and extraordinary cycling stability (>90% capacity retention after 50 cycles at C/20) is achieved solely through the use of an ionic liquid electrolyte (1 m LiFSI/Pyr1,3FSI), which forms a stable solid electrolyte interphase and prevents the fusing of particles. This stability extends over 200 cycles at much higher rates (C/2) and temperatures (50 °C). High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy reveals intricate morphological features, lattice orientation relationships and oxidation state changes that comprehensively describe the conversion mechanism. Phase evolution, diffusion kinetics and cell failure are critically influenced by surface-specific reactions. The reversibility of the conversion reaction is governed by topotactic cation diffusion through an invariant lattice of fluoride anions and the nucleation of metallic particles on semicoherent interfaces. This new understanding is used to showcase the inherently high discharge rate capability of FeF2.
Increasing the electrochemical activity of basal plane sites in porous 3D edge rich MoS2 thin films for the hydrogen evolution reaction
Charge-Free Mixing Entropy Battery Enabled by Low-Cost Electrode Materials.
Salinity gradients are a vast and untapped energy resource. For every cubic meter of freshwater that mixes with seawater, approximately 0.65 kW h of theoretically recoverable energy is lost. For coastal wastewater treatment plants that discharge to the ocean, this energy, if recovered, could power the plant. The mixing entropy battery (MEB) uses battery electrodes to convert salinity gradient energy into electricity in a four-step process: (1) freshwater exchange; (2) charging in freshwater; (3) seawater exchange; and (4) discharging in seawater. Previously, we demonstrated a proof of concept, but with electrode materials that required an energy investment during the charging step. Here, we introduce a charge-free MEB with low-cost electrodes: Prussian Blue (PB) and polypyrrole (PPy). Importantly, this MEB requires no energy investment, and the electrode materials are stable with repeated cycling. The MEB equipped with PB and PPy achieved high voltage ratios (actual voltages obtained divided by the theoretical voltages) of 89.5% in wastewater effluent and 97.6% in seawater, with over 93% capacity retention after 50 cycles of operation and 97-99% over 150 cycles with a polyvinyl alcohol/sulfosuccinic acid (PVA/SSA) coating on the PB electrode.
Effect of the Particle-Size Distribution on the Electrochemical Performance of a Red Phosphorus-Carbon Composite Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries