Crystal Orientation Dependent Oxidation Modes at the Buried Graphene-Cu Interface

Mapped regions of the cu surface orientations

Over 100 different graphene covered Cu (high and low index) orientations exposed to air for 2 years were analysed using a combined method of spatially resolved scanning photoelectron spectroscopy with confocal Raman and optical microscopy, which revealed how the oxidation of the buried graphene-Cu interface related to the Cu crystallographic orientation.  

Four general oxidation modes were observed which can be mapped as regions onto the polar plot of Cu surface orientations.

This paper presents a comprehensive characterisation of the four modes, considers the underlying mechanisms, and compares air and water mediated oxidation.  

This understanding incorporates effects from across the wide parameter space of 2D material interface engineering, relevant to key challenges in their emerging applications, ranging from scalable transfer to electronic contacts, encapsulation, and corrosion protection.