Professor Angus Wilkinson
Department of Materials
Tel: +44 1865 273700 (switchboard)
Fax: +44 1865 273764
Micromechanics Group Website
My group is concerned with the mechanical behaviour of materials, mostly metals and alloys, at the microstructural level. We are at the forefront of developing the SEM based EBSD technique for mapping stress distributions at high spatial resolution. Other techniques used extensively within the group are nano-indentation, micro-cantilever bend testing and micro-pillar compression testing, digital image correlation and dislocation-based modelling. We aim to help improve mechanistic understanding of deformation, fracture and fatigue processes in metals and alloys. Currently we are working on Ti, Cu, Ni, Fe-Cr and W based alloys.
High Resolution EBSD - Mapping Strain, Lattice Rotation and Dislocation Density
Dr. A.J. Wilkinson, Dr T. B. Britton, Jun Jiang
We are continuing to develop the cross-correlation based analysis of electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns that was pioneered by the group for mapping elastic strain tensors at high spatial resolution. Current interests are (i) in using the measured lattice curvatures to map the geometrically necessary dislocation density, (ii) in moving from our small deformation formulation to a finite strain one, (iii) overcoming the ‘reference pattern problem’. The method is being applied to a wide range of materials systems including semiconductors (SiGe/Si, and GaN) and metals (Ti, Zr, Ni, Cu, Fe-Cr, and W alloys deformed in various ways).
Micromechanical Testing of Ti Alloys
Dr J Gong, Dr A. J. Wilkinson
We are using FIB to cut micron scale cantilevers in polycrystalline Ti alloy samples. The cantilevers are then tested in bending using a nanoindenter. The load-displacement data is analysed using crystal plasticity finite element simulations to extract elastic constants (Young’s modulus) and plastic flow properties (critical resolved shear stress). We are examining the effects of alloying additions and the presence of beta phase on the CRSS of the various slip systems in near alpha alloys. We are also investigating the effects of individual grain boundaries on plastic deformation. (Funded by EPSRC with support from Rolls Royce)
Fundamentals of cyclic deformation and fatigue crack initiation
Jun Jiang, Dr. A.J. Wilkinson, Professor S.G. Roberts, Professor F. P.E. Dunne*
Plastic deformation of metals leads to an increase in the dislocation content, the development of residual stresses and changes in the flow stress. In a polycrystal grain-grain interactions lead to inter- and intra-granular inhomogeneity in the dislocation density and residual stress distributions. Characterising the evolution of this patterning is key to understanding strain localisation and subsequent crack initiation. We are using the high resolution EBSD method to map geometrically necessary dislocation density in model FCC polycrystals (Cu, brass) deformed in tension to varying strain levels, and in fatigue to varying numbers of cycles. Results will be used to guide development of crystal plasticity models by our collaborators. (*Engineering Science, Oxford)
Local stress fields and deformation generated by twinning and martensitic phase transformation
Dr A. J. Wilkinson
Deformation twinning makes a sizeable contribution to the plastic deformation of many bcc and hcp metals and alloys. The twinning shear strain is often very large, and consequently leads to very high, but localised, stresses within the surrounding matrix. Further plastic flow through dislocation motion can occur in the matrix so as to relax the high stresses and accommodate some of the twinning strain. Furthermore deformation twinning is often cited as a mechanicsm leading to fracture initiation. Martensitic phase transformations have some similarity with deformation twinning though hydrostatic strains can be caused in addition to shearing. In this project the new cross-correlation based EBSD method will be used to map elastic strains (ie stresses) and lattice rotations around deformation twins and martensite laths. The following interactions will be studied: twin-grain boundary, twin-dislocation slip, twin-crack and twin-twin. The project will concentrate on fundamental aspect of these processes using various model material systems.
Dr. D.E.J. Armstrong, Dr T.B. Britton, Dr J. Gong, Professor S.G. Roberts, Dr. A.J. Wilkinson
The project develops new methods of testing mechanical properties at the micron scale, using a combination of focussed ion beam machining (to produce specimens) and atomic force microscopy / nanoindentation (to test them). The methods are applied to testing thin films, ion-irradiated layers, interfaces and properties of individual grains and grain boundaries in alloys. A newly-commissioned machine will enable tests to be perfomed in the temperature range -50 to +750C. Supported by EPSRC and CCFE Culham (Junior Research Fellowship at St Edmund Hall: D. Armstrong)
Brittle-ductile transitions in BCC metals for fusion power applications
Dr D.E.J. Armstrong, Dr. E. Tarleton, Professor S.G. Roberts, Dr. A.J. Wilkinson, Professor S.L. Dudarev*
The project investigates the brittle-to-ductile transition in tungsten and iron-chromium alloys up to 12%Cr (all these metals are the basis for proposed fusion power plant alloys). Pre-cracked miniature bend specimens of single crystals and polycrystalline materials are fracture tested in the temperature range 77 - 450K. The effect of dislocation motion around the crack tips on fracture stress is examined, and modelled using dynamic-dislocation simulations. Funded by EPSRC and CCFE. (*EURATOM/CCFE)
6 public active projects
?a? Prismatic, ?a? basal, and ?c+a? slip strengths of commercially pure Zr by micro-cantilever tests
J Gong, TB Britton, MA Cuddihy, FPE Dunne, AJ Wilkinson
Acta Materialia (2015) vol. 96, 249-257
Measurements of stress fields near a grain boundary: Exploring blocked arrays of dislocations in 3D
Y Guo, DM Collins, E Tarleton, F Hofmann, J Tischler, W Liu, R Xu, AJ Wilkinson, TB Britton
Acta Materialia (2015) vol. 96, 229-236
On the mechanistic basis of deformation at the microscale in hexagonal close-packed metals
TB Britton, FPE Dunne, AJ Wilkinson
Proceedings of the Royal Society A (2015) vol. 471, 20140881
Evolution of intragranular stresses and dislocation densities during cyclic deformation of polycrystalline copper
J Jiang, TB Britton, AJ Wilkinson
Acta Materialia (2015) vol. 94, 193-204
The effect of pattern overlap on the accuracy of high resolution electron backscatter diffraction measurements
V Tong, , J Jiang, AJ Wilkinson, TB Britton
Ultramicroscopy (2015) vol. 155, 62-73
Using transmission Kikuchi diffraction to study intergranular stress corrosion cracking in type 316 stainless steels
M Meisnar, A Vilalta-Clemente, A Gholinia, Michael Moody, AJ Wilkinson, N Huin, S Lozano-Perez
Micron (2015) vol. 75, 1-10
The orientation and strain dependence of dislocation structure evolution in monotonically deformed polycrystalline copper
J Jiang, TB Britton and AJ Wilkinson
International Journal of Plasticity (2015) vol. 69, 102-117
A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of in situ biaxial deformation
DM Collins, M Mostafavi, RI Todd, T Connolley and AJ Wilkinson
Acta Materialia (2015) vol. 90, 46-58
A discrete dislocation plasticity study of the micro-cantilever size effect
E Tarleton, DS Balint, J Gong, and AJ Wilkinson
Acta Materialia (2015) vol. 88, 271-282
Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals
Evolution of dislocation density distributions in copper during tensile deformation
*Stress Hot Spots in Ti alloys
Prof A J Wilkinson
In Ti alloys oxygen content and Al alloying have profound effects on strength and alter slip planarity. This can alter the amount of plastic strain localised into a particular slip band and hence influence the magnitude of stress ‘hot spots’ that develop at grain boundaries. Similarly altering the mechanical loading conditions from quasi-static tension, to creep or cyclic ratcheting may also alter the resistance of grain boundaries to slip transfer. Over the last few years we have had good success using HR-EBSD to map local stress distributions at the head of slip bands intersecting with grain boundaries. The work has received considerable interest but was limited to low oxygen content pure Ti in quasi-static tension. This project will expand upon our initial measurements by looking at how material alloying and varying the mechanical loading conditions alters the response. This project will be carried out in close conjunction with Rolls Royce and other partner universities within the HexMat flagship EPSRC programme.
Candidates are considered in the January 2017 admissions cycle which has an application deadline of 20 January 2017.
This 3.5-year EPSRC DTP studentship will provide full fees and maintenance for a student who has home fee status (this includes an EU student who has spent the previous three years (or more) in the UK undertaking undergraduate study). The stipend will be at least £15,296 per year. Other EU students should read the guidance at http://www.materials.ox.ac.uk/admissions/postgraduate/eu.html for further information about eligibility.
Any questions concerning the project can be addressed to Professor Angus Wilkinson (firstname.lastname@example.org). General enquiries on how to apply can be made by e mail to email@example.com. You must complete the standard Oxford University Application for Graduate Studies. Further information and an electronic copy of the application form can be found at http://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/postgraduate_courses/apply/index.html.
Also see homepages: Angus Wilkinson
High Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Applications
David EJ Armstrong and Angus J Wilkinson
High entropy alloys are a relatively new and unexplored class of metallic alloys in which three to five elements are mixed in near equal proportions in a single phase solid solution. The high entropy of mixing suppresses phase separation and should lead to high strength retained to high temperatures. We have demonstrated that some of these alloys can have excellent resistance to radiation damage and as such they are garnering interest as potential future fuel cladding material for fission reactors or as a structural material for fusion reactors.
This project will aim to produce a low activation alloy suitable for nuclear fusion or fission application. Elemental powder will be combined using arc melting to produce small quantities of test alloys. Microstructures stability will be studied using thermal treatments, X-ray diffraction and SEM-EDX and EBSD. Mechanical testing will be carried out across length scales and at reactor relevant temperatures, using both nanoindentation and macro-scale mechanical testing. This will for a fundamental study of deformation processes in this relatively new class of alloys. The most promising alloys will be ion irradiated to simulate neutron damage, with TEM and micromechanical testing used to study the effect of the irradiation on mechanical behaviour. This will then lead to an understanding of the irradiation resistance of these alloys. The project may be linked to the Fusion CDT and will also link with collaborators both in the UK and USA.
Advanced Analysis of Electron Back Scatter Diffraction Patterns
Prof Angus J Wilkinson
Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) is now a ubiquitous tool for the characterisation of crystalline materials. From the early on the method has been at the forefront of integrating computer control and analysis to automate workflows leading to a versatile and powerful tool that is easy to use. The availability of good pattern simulations based on dynamical diffraction theory, and the possibility of advanced direct electron detection systems opens up new possibilities for analysis of EBSD patterns. This project will continue our development of advanced analysis of EBSD patterns including cross-correlation based mapping of elastic strain tensors which we have pioneered. Opportunities exist to address: high accuracy pattern centre determination (pattern matching, shadow casting, screen movement methods), solving the ‘reference pattern problem’ for absolute strain measurements, using pattern matching to simulated pattern libraries to index EBSPs where conventional Hough-based approaches fail (polarity of non-centrosymmetric crystals, multiphase materials, pseudo-symmetry issues, TKD), and combining 3D-EBSD and FIB milling with HR-EBSD strain mapping and modelling capabilities.
Also see homepages: Angus Wilkinson
Fatigue Crack Initiation in Ti alloy Linear Friction Welds
Prof Angus J Wilkinson and Dr Jicheng Gong
We have developed novel methods for very rapid (~106 cycles in 1 min) fatigue testing of very small (~0.5 to 200 µm across) material volumes. This has opened up new possibilities for studying fatigue crack initiation in (very) high cycle fatigue. In this project the method will be used to examine fatigue crack initiation in Ti-6Al-4V linear friction welds - the key technology in manufacture of bladed disks 'blisks' for areoengines. During linear friction welding very intense but localised heating is generated and followed by rapid cooling as the process stops which leads to very dramatic changes in microstructure over a narrow weld region. The new testing method will allow individual parts of this microstructure to be isolated and its fatigue response established. We aim to provide a very complete analysis of the weld zone's fatigue behaviour and link it to microstructural variation and processing conditions.
This project will be carried out in close conjunction with Rolls Royce and will link to activities under the flagship EPSRC HexMat programme grant.
Also see homepages: Angus Wilkinson
Strains Induced by Hydride Formation in Zirconium
Prof Angus J Wilkinson, Dr Ed Tarleton, and Dr David E J Armstrong
In service temperature cycling of nuclear fuel cladding can lead to repeated sequences of precipitation and dissolution of hydrides in zirconium based alloys. During the transformation from hydrogen in solid solution to the hydride phase there is a considerable volume expansion. This project will explore the links between nucleation sites, hysteresis between temperatures for precipitation and dissolution, the stress field and local plasticity induced by the transformation strain and the precipitation morphology. The following techniques will be used: high resolution EBSD, digital image correlation of SEM images, in situ thermal cycling, finite element based-crystal plasticity simulations. This project will be carried out in close conjunction with Rolls Royce and other partner Universities within the HexMat flagship EPSRC programme (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/hexmat).
Understanding High Temperature Small Scale Mechanical Performance of Materials for Nuclear Fusion
Dr D.E.J. Armstrong, Dr E. Tarleton, Professor A.J. Wilkinson,
Future nuclear power systems, both fission and fusion, rely on the development of materials which can withstand some of the most extreme engineering environments. These include temperatures up to 1500oC, high fluxes of high energy neutrons and effects of gaseous elements produced by transmutation and implantation from the plasmas. Due to efforts to minimise the production of nuclear waste by such reactors the elements which may be used in structural components is limited and in many cases there is a lack of understanding of the basic deformation processes occur in ether pure materials or alloys and importantly how these are affected by temperature, radiation damage and gas content. This project will build upon the expertise in the MFFP and Micromechanics groups on high temperature mechanical testing at the micro and nano-scale. Facilities include two high temperature nanoindenters (-50oC to 950oC), high temperature microhardness (RT to 1500oC) and dedicated FIB-SEM and FEG-SEM with EBSD as well as state of the art computer codes for strain gradient crystal plasticity finite element modelling and discrete dislocation plasticity modelling. Both nanoindentation, micro-compression and micro-bend experiments will be used to study plastic deformation, fracture and creep in a range of novel high temperature materials (likely Fe, SiC or Zr based) with potential for use in future fusion reactors. HR-EBSD and AFM will be used to study deformation structures produced during testing and to inform strain gradient crystal plasticity finite element and discrete dislocation models. This will allow for a fuller understanding of the underlying physics of deformation in these materials both before and after irradiation or gas implantation. Strong links will be made to activities within the Science and Technology of Fusion Energy (EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training) and the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.
Fundamentals of Fatigue Crack Initiation
Prof Angus J Wilkinson
The development within the group of the high resolution EBSD method provides a route to map the intra-granular distributions of local stress and dislocation density in a routine way. This project will exploit this development in trying to gain insight into cyclic deformation leading to fatigue crack initiation. Polycrystals processed to give different characteristic length scales will be examined at various points through the early stages of fatigue. The formation of 'hot spots' of high stresses and/or high dislocation density will be characterised. We will also attempt to identify local microstructural features that tend to encourage hot spot formation and crack initiation.
Also see homepages: Angus Wilkinson
Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.