Professor Jason Smith
Department of Materials
Tel: +44 1865 273780 (Room 195.30.10)
Leader of the Photonic Nanomaterials Group (PNG) in which research is focused on optical and electronic properties of solid state nanostructures for applications such as optoelectronics devices, quantum information processing and photovoltaics. At present the Group’s research involves two such systems - semiconductor nanocrystals and colour centres in diamond which we investigate using luminescence-based optical techniques. More information about our research can be found in the project descriptions below, or on the PNG website.
High Q optical microcavities for solid state cavity QED
P. Dolan, Dr. G. Hughes, Dr. J.M. Smith
In this project we are developing large arrays of high quality tunable optical microcavities and using them to modify the photon emission properties of nanomaterials such as diamond colour centres and semiconductor nanocrystals. The project focuses on the basic science of the emitter/cavity quantum systems, and explores their use as single photon sources, microlasers, and in a range of sensing and spectroscopic applications. Collaborators include the University of Strathclyde, the University of Bristol, and the University of Melbourne.
Enhancing the efficiency of thin film solar cells using optical confinement
M. Wincott, A. Powell, Dr. H.E. Assender, Dr. A.A.R. Watt, Dr. J.M. Smith
Thin film solar cells offer an inexpensive means to generate clean energy, but current efficiencies are limited to around five percent, about three times lower than commercial polycrystalline silicon cells. One of the main reasons behind the low efficiency is that a tension exists between the desire to absorb as much as possible of the incident light, in which case the optical path length should be thick (at least several hundred nanometres), and the desire to extract the photogenerated charge carriers efficiently from the cell, in which case the exciton transport path length should be short (no more than a few tens of nanometers). Most attempts to solve this problem involve using a thick cell, and focusing the advanced aspects of cell design on building in some means for ensuring a short transport path length. Here we take the opposite viewpoint; that the optical path can be elongated for a given cell geometry by the use of wave guiding and cavitation, thereby reducing the burden placed on the transport related features of the device. This new project involves the design, fabrication, and testing of devices that explore this theme by employing inexpensive approaches to encourage light to propagate in the plane of the film.
Roll-to-roll processing of organic electronics
Dr G.A.W. Abbas, Z. Ding, Dr. H.E. Assender
Electronics components that can be manufactured using roll-to-roll processing offer the possibility of lower cost devices as well as those that might be mechanically flexible in use. Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing, using a flexible substrate (typically a polymer film) allows for cheap production of many components very rapidly, with low energy requirements. Key areas of exploitation of this technology include flexible displays, but there is also a wealth of lower-cost applications. Tagging and tracking of fast moving consumer goods is an example technology that truly exploit the very low-cost nature of the production and in which the manufacturing is closely linked to the manufacturing routes currently exploited for e.g. packaging technologies. This project seeks to exploit the existing industrialised technology of vacuum R2R processing, widely used for example in the packaging industry, to develop the manufacture of very low cost organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based devices and circuits. This manufacturing route, like solvent based systems, is cheap and provides flexible product, and we can exploit high electrical mobility molecular semiconductors. Additional advantages of the solvent-free vacuum processes include: a) likely enhanced web-speed, b) integration with vacuum-based metal deposition for conducting channels, and metal or ceramic deposition for barrier layers and possible interfacial modification, and c) the ability to deposit multiple thin layers to build up device structures without solvent interactions with underlying layers. The project will exploit our existing R2R web processing facility to explore the principal manufacturing challenges to R2R vacuum production of OFET devices: 1) selection and adaptation of materials to vacuum deposition integrated with design of suitable circuitry, 2) patterning of the semiconductor and insulator layers to allow the formation of circuit connections between devices and 3) reliability of manufacture to be able to produce arrays of multiple transistors for circuits. It will allow us to explore and develop the deposition of molecular semiconductor and dielectric materials and then the subsequent reliability and thermo-mechanical resilience of the resulting product such that it might need to withstand, for example, during a lamination process.
3 public active projects
P. R. Dolan, G. M. Hughes, F. Grazioso, B. R. Patton, and J. M. Smith, Femtoliter tunable optical cavity arrays, Optics Lett. (in press).
F. Grazioso, B. R. Patton, and J. M. Smith, A high stability beam-scanning confocal optical microscope for low temperature operation, Review of Scientific Instruments 81, (2010).
C. A. Cattley, A. Stavrinadis, R. Beal, J. Moghal, A. G. Cook, P. S. Grant, J. M. Smith, H. E. Assender, and A. A. R. Watt, Colloidal synthesis of lead oxide nanocrystals for photovoltaics, Chem. Comm. 46, 2802 (2010).
R. M. Beal, A. Stavrinadis, J. H. Warner, J. M. Smith, H. E. Assender, and A. A. R. Watt, The molecular structure of polymer-fullerene composite solar cells and its influence on device performance, Macromolecules 43, 2343 (2010).
A. Stavrinadis, J. M. Smith, C. A. Cattley, A. G. Cook, P. S. Grant, and A. A. R. Watt, SnS/PbS nanocrystal heterojunction photovoltaics, Nanotechnology 21, 185202 (2010).
A. Stavrinadis, S. Xu, J. H. Warner, J. Hutchison, J. M .Smith and A. A. R. Watt, Superstructures of PbS nanocrystals in a conjugated polymer and the aligning role of oxidation, Nanotechnology 20, 445608 (2009).
D. J. Keeble, E. A. Thomsen, A. Stavrinadis, I. D. W. Samuel, J. M. Smith, and A. A. R. Watt, Paramagnetic point defects and charge carriers in PbS and CdS nanocrystal polymer composites, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 17306 (2009).
S. C. Benjamin, B. W. Lovett, and J. M. Smith, Prospects for measurement based quantum computing using solid state spins, Laser & Photonics Reviews, 3, 556 (2009).
P. K. Santra, R. Viswanatha, S. Daniels, N. L. Pickett, J. M Smith, P. O'Brien and D. D. Sarma, Investigation of the internal heterostructure of highly luminescent quantum dot - quantum well nanocrystals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 470 (2009).
B. A. Fairchild, P. Olivero, A. D. Greentree, F. Waldermann, R. A. Taylor, J. M. Smith, S. Rubanov, S. Huntington, B. Gibson, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, Fabrication of ultra thin membranes from single crystal diamond for photonic and NEMS applications, Advanced Materials 20, 4793 (2008).
A. Stavrinadis, R. Beal, J. M. Smith, H. E. Assender, and A. A. R. Watt, Direct formation of PbS nanorods in a conjugated polymer, Advanced Materials 20, 3105 (2008).
S. H. Kim, P. H. Sher, Y. B. Hahn, and J. M. Smith, Luminescence from single CdSe nanocrystals embedded in ZnO thin films using atomic layer deposition, Nanotechnology 19, 365202 (2008).
P. A. Dalgarno, J. M .Smith, J. MacFarlane, B. D. Gerardot, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, Coulomb interactions in single charged self-assembled quantum dots: Radiative lifetime and recombination energy, Phys. Rev. B 77, 245311 (2008).
P. A. Dalgarno, M. Ediger, B. D. Gerardot, J. M. Smith, S. Seidl, M. Kroner, K. Karrai, P. M. Petroff, A. O. Govorov, and R. J. Warburton, Optically induced hybridization of a quantum dot state with a filled continuum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 176801 (2008).
P. H. Sher, J. M. Smith, P. A. Dalgarno, R. J. Warburton, X. Chen, P. J. Dobson, S. M. Daniels, N. L. Pickett, and P. O'Brien, Power law carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals at nanosecond time scales, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101111 (2008).
S. Seidl, M. Kroner, P. A. Dalgarno, A. Hogele, J. M. Smith, M. Ediger, B. D. Gerardot, J. M. Garcia, P. M. Petroff, K. Karrai, and R. J. Warburton, Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy on a single self-assembled charge-tunable quantum dot, Phys. Rev. B 72 195339 (2005).
P. A. Dalgarno, J. M. Smith, B. D. Gerardot, A. O. Govorov, K. Karrai, P. M. Petroff, and R. J. Warburton, Dark exciton decay dynamics of a semiconductor quantum dot, Phys. Stat. Solid. A-Applications and Materials Science 202 p.2591-2597 (2005).
A. J. Moore, J. Smith, and N. J. Lawson, Volume three-dimensional flow measurements using wavelength multiplexing, Optics Lett. 30, p.2569 (2005).
J. M. Smith, P. A. Dalgarno, R. J. Warburton, A. O. Govorov, K. Karrai, B. D. Gerardot and P. M. Petroff, Voltage control of the spin dynamics of an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197402 (2005).
M. Ediger, P. A. Dalgarno, J. M. Smith, B. D. Gerardot, R. J. Warburton, K. Karrai and P. M. Petroff, Controlled generation of neutral, negatively-charged and positively-charged excitons in the same single quantum dot, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2119209 (2005).
B. Urbaszek, E. J. McGhee, J. M. Smith, R. J. Warburton, K. Karrai, B. D. Gerardot, J. M. Garcia and P. M. Petroff, Charged excitons in individual quantum dots: effects of vertical electric fields and optical pump power, Physica E 17, 35 (2003).
J. M. Smith, P. A. Dalgarno, B. Urbaszek, E. J. McGhee, G. S. Buller, G. J. Nott and R. J. Warburton, Carrier storage and capture dynamics in quantum-dot heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3761 (2003).
M. A. Malik, P. O'Brien, S. Norager and J. Smith, Gallium arsenide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterisation, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2591 (2003).
J. M. Smith, G. S. Buller, D. Marshall, A. Miller and C. C. Button, Microsecond carrier lifetimes in InGaAsP quantum wells emitting at lambda=1500 nm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1870 (2002).
J. M. Smith, P. A. Hiskett, I. Gontijo, L. Purves and G. S. Buller, A picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence microscope with detection at wavelengths greater than 1500 nm, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2325 (2001).
J. M. Smith, P. A. Hiskett and G. S. Buller, Picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence at detection wavelengths greater than 1500 nm, Opt. Lett. 26, 731 (2001).
P. A. Hiskett, J. M. Smith, G. S. Buller and P. D. Townsend, Low-noise single-photon detection at wavelength 1550 nm.Electron. Lett. 37, 1081 (2001).
S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace and S. Cova, Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712 (2000).
P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, A. Y. Loudon, J. M. Smith, I. Gontijo, A. C. Walker, P. D. Townsend and M. J. Robertson, Performance and design of InGaAs/InP photodiodes for single- photon counting at 1550 nm, Appl. Optics 39, 6818 (2000).
*Defect engineering in diamond for magnetic field imaging and gradiometry
Prof Jason Smith and Prof Martin Booth, Dept of Engineering Science
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond have generated enormous interest in recent years for their highly coherent spin properties and convenient optical interface. Magnetometry using the electron spin in an ensemble of NV- defect has been shown to be capable of detecting fields of <1 pT Hz-1/2 such that their use as quantum field sensors is generating significant industrial interest. Companies known to be building commercial magnetometry systems with NV centres include Bosch (navigation systems), and several organisations are developing NV-based magnetic imaging systems with ~10nm resolution for biological and physical sciences.
In the past two years we have demonstrated that laser processing with aberration correction can produce high quality single NV centres at precise locations in bulk diamond materials. This PhD project will use the technique we have developed (patent applied for) to produce regular 2D and 3D arrays of NV centres in diamond, and use these arrays to demonstrate magnetic field imaging and gradiometry.
The student will carry out laser processing in the Booth group, and characterisation using photoluminescence spectroscopy and optically detected magnetic resonance in the Smith group. He/she will measure the electron spin coherence times of the NV centres to assess their suitability for magnetometry. The best samples will be used to demonstrate magnetic field imaging and gradiometry. The project will take place within the UK Quantum Technologies programme, with the goal to produce commercial technologies from quantum science. Oxford hosts the UK Hub in Networked Quantum Information Technologies, providing an exciting and dynamic environment in which to carry out the project (see http://nqit.ox.ac.uk).
Candidates are considered in the January 2017 admissions cycle which has an application deadline of 20 January 2017.
The NQIT Hub is funded by an award to a consortium of nine universities and is supported by a number of commercial and governmental partners, including the EPSRC. This 3-year studentship will provide full fees and maintenance for a student as home fee status (this includes an EU student who has spent the previous three years (or more) in the UK undertaking undergraduate study). The stipend will be at least £14,296 per year. Other EU students should read the guidance at http://www.materials.ox.ac.uk/admissions/postgraduate/eu.html for further information about eligibility.
Any questions concerning the project can be addressed to Professor Jason Smith (firstname.lastname@example.org). General enquiries on how to apply can be made by e mail to email@example.com. You must complete the standard Oxford University Application for Graduate Studies. Further information and an electronic copy of the application form can be found at http://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/postgraduate_courses/apply/index.html.
Also see homepages: Jason Smith
Defects in diamond as spin qubits in quantum networks
Prof Jason Smith
Diamond has unsurpassed properties for quantum technologies such as quantum sensing and quantum computing, and point defects in the material can act as trapped atoms with properties ideal for the storage and manipulation of quantum states. A major challenge is the efficient coupling of these atom-like systems with optical systems, so that quantum states can be transferred between electrons (or nuclei) and photons to enable the construction of scalable networks. This doctoral project will involve the coupling of single nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond to optical microcavities in order to maximise the efficiency of quantum state transfer and facilitate scalable networking. You will be part of a small team working towards this goal, which will involve a range of techniques including optical characterisation and spectroscopy, fabrication and handling of diamond microstructures and optical devices, and lasers and cryogenic instrumentation. As such the project is well suited to an energetic and hands-on student who enjoys building apparatus and has a good working knowledge of optics. The project is part of a substantial nationwide program to build scalable quantum networks involving matter systems and photons.
Also see homepages: Jason Smith
Sensing, characterisation and manipulation at the nanoscale using optical microcavities
Prof Jason Smith and Dr Aurelien Trichet
Optical sensing and spectroscopy are powerful tools for detecting and characterising nanoparticles at the single particle level. Pollutants and aerosols or microbiological organisms such as viruses have characteristic optical signatures based on their refractive index, size, and polarisability as well as spectral signatures that allow them to be identified and studied. This project will develop novel optical microcavities as means of confining light such that its interaction with nanoparticles is both strengthened and highly controlled. These microcavities show great potential for the trapping and manipulation of particles, and for particle identification using refractive index and spectroscopic methods. The project will involve fabrication of cavity devices and using them to perform some foundational experiments in this area. The student project is part of a larger effort within the group, in collaboration with Dr Claire Vallance in the Department of Chemistry.
Spectroscopy and device applications of monolayer semiconductors coupled to optical microcavities
Prof Jamie Warner, Prof Jason Smith
Monolayer semiconductor materials such as WS2 and MoSe2 display strong optical transitions that are attractive for nanoscale optoelectronic devices. These properties can be both enhanced and harnessed by coupling the materials to optical microcavities, opening possibilities for fast optical switches, ultra-low threshold lasers, and advanced quantum light sources. This project brings together the expertise of two leading research groups in 2D materials (Prof Jamie Warner) and in microcavity photonics (Prof Jason Smith). The project will build on some preliminary work which provides first demonstrations of basic phenomena, and will develop the experiments further to investigate ‘strong coupling’ (ie the creation of polaritons - part electronic excitation, part photon) and the switching of polariton states to realise ambient temperature devices.
Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.