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Peter Bruce

Professor Peter G Bruce FRS
Wolfson Chair

Department of Materials
University of Oxford
Parks Road
Oxford OX1 3PH
UK

Tel: +44 1865 612760 (Room 271.10.09)
Tel: +44 1865 273777 (reception)
Fax: +44 1865 273789 (general fax)

Research Group website

Summary of Interests

My primary research interests are in the fields of solid state chemistry and electrochemistry; particularly solid state ionics, which embraces ionically conducting solids and intercalation compounds. I am interested in the fundamental science of ionically conducting solids (ceramic and polymeric materials) and intercalation compounds, in the synthesis of new materials with new properties or combinations of properties, in understanding these properties and in exploring their applications in new devices, especially energy storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries. Although ionically conducting solids represent the starting point for much of our research, we have extended our interests well beyond the confines of this subject alone.

Projects Available

Three projects on the materials chemistry and electrochemistry of batteries: lithium-air, all solid state lithium and sodium-ion batteries
Prof Peter G Bruce (Wolfson Chair in Materials, Departments of Materials and Chemistry)

1. The materials chemistry and electrochemistry of the lithium-air battery
Energy storage represents one of the major scientific challenges of our time. Pioneering work in Oxford in the 1980s led to the introduction of the lithium-ion battery and the subsequent portable electronics revolution (iPad, mobile phone).

Theoretically the Li-air battery can store more energy than any other device, as such it could revolutionise energy storage. The challenge is to understand the electrochemistry and materials chemistry of the Li-air battery and by advancing the science unlock the door to a practical device. The Li-air battery consists of a lithium metal negative electrode and a porous positive electrode, separated by an organic electrolyte. On discharge, at the positive electrode, O2 is reduced to O22- forming solid Li2O2, which is oxidised on subsequent charging. It is the organic analogue of the oxygen reduction/oxygen evolution reaction in aqueous electrochemistry. The project will involve understanding the electrochemistry of O2 reduction in Li+ containing organic electrolytes to form Li2O2 and its reversal on charging. The use for redox mediators to facilitate the O2 reduction and evolution. The exploration of new electrolyte solutions and their influence of the reversibility of the reaction. The project will use a range of electrochemical, spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR, XPS, in situ mass spec.) and microscopic (AFM, TEM) methods to determine the mechanism of O2 reduction (presence and nature of intermediates e.g. superoxide) and its kinetics. Our aim is not to build devices but to understand the underlying science. We seek highly qualified, ambitious, imaginative, hard-working and self-motivated candidates. Further details may be obtained by contacting simultaneously Dr Lee Johnson at lee.johnson@materials.ox.ac.uk and Zsofia Szabo at zsofia.szabo@materials.ox.ac.uk.

2. Challenges facing all-solid-state batteries

There is increasing worldwide motivation to research and develop all-solid-state batteries in order to achieve better safety, higher energy density, as well as wider operating temperature energy storages, as compared to conventional Li-ion batteries using liquid electrolytes. All solid state batteries consist of a solid electrolyte as the main component, an intercalation cathode, e.g. LiCoO2, and an anode with the ultimate goal of implementing a lithium metal anode. The project will involve advancing the fundamental understanding from material to cell level. Synthesis of new Li+ conducting solid electrolytes and characterisation of their structural, electrochemical, electrical, and mechanical properties will be required. The work will include investigation of phenomena at solid electrode/solid electrolyte interfaces, something that is central to progressing solid state batteries but is not well understood, e.g. charge transfer, parasitic reactions, occurring at the interfaces of the electrolytes with both cathodes and anodes. Further parameters affecting the cycleability of the all-solid-state batteries will need to be identified. A range of characterisation techniques will be used, including X-ray and neutron diffraction, electron microscopy, NMR, Raman and IR spectroscopy, X-ray tomography, as well as several electrochemical techniques such as EIS and cycling. We seek highly qualified, ambitious, imaginative, hard-working and self-motivated candidates. Further details may be obtained by contacting simultaneously Dr Christian Kuss at  christian.kuss@materials.ox.ac.uk and Zsofia Szabo at zsofia.szabo@materials.ox.ac.uk.

3. The materials chemistry and electrochemistry of lithium and sodium-ion batteries
Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionised portable electronics and are now used in electric vehicles. However new generations are required for future applications in transport and storing electricity from renewable sources (wind, wave, solar). Such advances are vital to mitigating climate change. Sodium is more abundant than lithium and so attractive especially for applications on the electricity grid. Lithium and sodium ion batteries both consist of intercalation compounds as the negative and positive electrodes. The charge and discharge involves shuttling Li+ or Na+ ions between the two intercalation hosts (electrodes) across the electrolyte. In the case of Li-ion batteries currently the most common technology is still graphite (anode) and LiCoO2 (cathode). However, the development of increased energy storage in Li ion systems drives research to discover new materials. In the case of Na-ion batteries whilst the principles are analogous to that of the Li-ion battery, as yet there are no preferred candidates as electrodes, which provides excellent motivation for further work.

The project will involve synthesising and characterising a number of Na/Li containing transition metal oxides. This will utilise synthesis methods such as sol-gel, hydrothermal and solid state, characterisation will involve X-ray and Neutron diffraction, solid state NMR, XPS, FTIR, TEM and SEM. Additionally it is important to understand the processes at the interfaces between the intercalation oxides and the organic electrolyte. For such the interfacial studies FTIR, Raman, in situ mass spec and XPS will be the main techniques. We seek highly qualified, ambitious, imaginative, hard-working and self-motivated candidates. Further details may be obtained by contacting simultaneously Dr Christian Kuss at christian.kuss@materials.ox.ac.uk and Zsofia Szabo at zsofia.szabo@materials.ox.ac.uk.

Also see homepages: Peter Bruce

Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.