Professor Andrew Briggs
Department of Materials
Tel: +44 1865 273700 (switchboard)
Fax: +44 1865 273730
QIPIRC HomepageQuantum Nanomaterials@Oxford
Summary of Interests
Whenever a fundamental new principle of science is discovered, the chances are that sooner or later a way will be found to use it for a new technology. The quantum mechanical principles of superposition and entanglement, identified nearly a century ago, are now understood to offer spectacular potential for technological applications. Superposition describes how an object can be in two states at once, as it were "here" and "there" at the same time. Two or more objects in superposition states can be entangled, so that measurements on each of them are correlated in a way that goes beyond anything we would expect from everyday intuition. Exploiting these effects in practical devices would provide new capabilities for fields such as molecular light harvesting and for molecular quantum technologies such as sensors, simulators, and quantum computers.
Successful laboratory experiments have shown that molecules of various kinds can exhibit these crucial quantum properties. Molecules are composed of electrons and atomic cores or "nuclei". Both electrons and nuclei can have a property called spin associated with them that makes them behave like tiny bar magnets. We have confirmed that electron and nuclear spins can be put into superpositions or entangled, and they can last for a long time in that condition. Most of the experiments so far have been in small test tubes. The crucial step now is to implement the same effects in nanometre scale electrical devices, such as single electron transistors consisting of single sheets of carbon rolled up as nanotubes or flat as sheets of graphene. By making hybrid technologies that combine molecules with nanoelectronics, we will lay the foundation for scaling up to more complex systems.
At this very small size, different atoms or molecules in different places affect the behaviour of the device. A breakthrough in the past few years enables us to see the positions of individual atoms in the materials which we want to use in our devices. The technique is aberration-corrected electron microscopy, and provided the electrons are not too energetic it is possible to look at the structures which we have made without damaging them. In this way we shall be able to relate the device performance to the atomic resolution microscopy of the component materials. Individual components of this vision include the following.
- design the devices to build, based on a deep understanding of how to control their quantum states;
- produce the materials, such as molecules with suitable spin states with carbon nanotubes and graphene for electrical substrates;
- make nanoscale devices and examine them in a microscope to see where the individual atoms and molecules are;
- perform the experiments to develop the quantum control and measurement for the effects which we aim to exploit;
- undertake theoretical modelling to understand the electron behaviour and to design new materials systems for improved performance.
Prizes and Awards
- Holliday Prize, Institute of Materials, 1984
- Metrology award for World Class Manufacturing, 1999
- Honorary Fellow of Royal Microscopical Society, 2000
- "The Search for Evidence-based Reality" - Video presentation, Heidelberg, October 2012
- "Experimental Implementations of Quantum Paradoxes" - Video presentation, Chapman University, California, August 2012
Synthesis and characterization of dimers for quantum entanglement
B.J. Farrington, Dr. K. Porfyrakis, Dr. A.N. Khlobystov*, Dr. A. Ardavan**, Professor G.A.D. Briggs
The fabrication of asymmetric dimers of endohedral fullerenes containing nitrogen atoms will enable spin resonance experiments to be performed that demonstrate entanglement between electron spins. This will constitute a crucial proof of principle of controlled entanglement in carbon nanomaterials. Chemical synthesis routes will be used that preserve the delicate endohedral nitrogen species, including the use of metal atoms to join the fullerenes through metal coordination bonds or via functionalising groups. (*University of Nottingham; **Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics)
Endohedral fullerene derivatives for Quantum Information Processing
B.J. Farrington, Dr. A. Ardavan**, Professor G.A.D. Briggs, Dr. K. Porfyrakis
Using new high-throughput purification technologies it is now possible to produce high purity N@C60 samples on a sufficiently large scale to allow chemical functionalization of the fullerene cage. We are developing the chemistry of endohedral fullerenes with the aim of synthesizing initially dimeric and subsequently oligomeric chains of spin-active molecules. We shall control the distance between endohedral fullerenes by designing appropriate bridge molecules with varying length. We shall develop the ability to engineer and manipulate spin-spin interactions along these chains. A molecular structure of this kind could constitute a key building block for any technology based on information processing with electron spins. (**Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics)
Electron spin ensemble based multimode quantum memory
Dr. A. Ardavan *, Professor G.A.D. Briggs
Ensembles of electron spin could be used as the media for quantum memory by utilizing the principle of holographic information storage. Multiple spatial phase modes are created by applying magnetic field gradient to the spin ensembles, in which multiple units of information are stored. The use of pulsed magnetic field gradients allows us to get access to the stored information selectively. This type of multimode quantum memory, in combination with superconducting qubit and cavity, could be used to develop a hybrid model of quantum computer. (*Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics)
Dimers for quantum computing
Dr. K. Porfyrakis, Dr. A. Ardavan*, Professor G.A.D. Briggs
Electron spin active dimers could be used to realize a two-qubit system for quantum computing. We have synthesized directly bonded empty fullerene dimers by high speed vibration milling. The same method can be used to synthesize endohedral fullerene dimers to realize a two-qubit system. We are investigating the switchable dimers for a controllable two-qubit system. We are synthesizing azobenzene bridged nitroxyl free radical dimers and fullerene dimers. UV/Vis light can be used to switch the bridge from trans- to cis-, or vice verse, in order to control the qubit interaction, which can be probed by ESR method. (*Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics)
Endohedral Fullerenes for Quantum Information Processing
Dr. K. Porfyrakis, Dr. A.M. Khlobystov*, Dr. A. Ardavan**, Professor G.A.D. Briggs
One of the most remarkably robust examples of an unpaired electron spin within a molecule is that of a nitrogen atom trapped inside a spherical fullerene (termed N@C60). We have measured the coherence time of a qubit encoded within this electron spin system and performed single qubit operations using pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). We are investigating the synthesis of several types of endohedral fullerene dimers including directly-bonded and oxygen-bridged dimers. These multi-qubit systems will then be characterised by EPR. We shall study the ability to control qubit interactions through the inter-fullerene bridge, and move on to investigate larger qubit arrays. (*University of Nottingham; **Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics)
Quantum superposition in large systems
Dr. S.C. Benjamin, E. Gauger, Professor G.A.D. Briggs, G. Knee
This is a theoretical project looking at the possibilities inherent in creating quantum superpositions of large objects such as massive molecules or SQUIDs and similar. A key theoretical tool is be the Leggett-Garg inequality, which tests to see if a system needs quantum physics to describe its behavoir. We are now buildings on the early success of this project, which we reported in this open Nature Communications paper: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v3/n1/full/ncomms1614.html
6 public active projects
Publications since 2010 are listed below. For more information see Full List of Publications.
Ultrasonic force and related microscopies. In Advances in Acoustic Microscopy and High Resolution Imaging (ed R.G. Maev), Weinheim: Wiley-VCH (2013). G.A.D. Briggs and O.V. Kolosov.
Opening up three quantum boxes causes classically undetectable wavefunction collapse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 3777-3781 (2013); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1208374110. R.E. George, L. Robledo, O.J.E. Maroney, M. Blok, H. Bernien, M.L. Markham, D.J. Twitchen, J.J.L. Morton, G.A.D. Briggs and R. Hanson.
Quantum sensors based on weak-value amplified cannot overcome decoherence. Phys. Rev. A 87 012115 (2013); DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.012115. G.C. Knee, G.A.D. Briggs, S.C. Benjamin and E.M. Gauger.
Comment on "A scattering quantum circuit for measuring Bell's time inequality: a nuclear magnetic resonance demonstration using maximally mixed states". New J. Phys. 14 058001 (2012). G.C. Knee, E.M. Gauger, G.A.D. Briggs and S.C. Benjamin.
Formation mechanism for a hybrid supramolecular network involving cooperative interactions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 176103 (2012). M. Mura, F. Silly, V.M. Burlakov, M.R. Castell, G.A.D. Briggs and L. Kantorovich.
N@C60-porphyrin: a dyad of two radical centers. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 134, 1938-1941 (2012). G. Liu, A.N. Khlobystov, G. Charalambidis, A. Coutsolelos, G.A.D Briggs and K. Porfyrakis.
Catalytic and non-catalytic roles of pendant groups in the decomposition of N@C60: a DFT investigation. Chem. Commun. 48, 5148-5150 (2012). G. Liu, A.N. Khlobystov, G.A.D. Briggs and K. Porfyrakis.
Chemistry at the nanoscale: synthesis of an N@C60-N@C60 endohedral fullerene dimer. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 3587-3590 (2012). B.J. Farrington, M. Jevric, G.A. Rance, A. Ardavan, A.N. Khlobystov, G.A.D. Briggs and K. Porfyrakis.
Violation of a Leggett-Garg inequality with ideal non-invasive measurements. Nat. Commun. 3, 606 (2012). G.C. Knee, S. Simmons, E.M. Gauger, J.J.L. Morton, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H-J. Pohl, K.M. Itoh, M.L. Thewalt, G.A.D. Briggs and S.C. Benjamin.
Resolving strain in carbon nanotubes at the atomic level. Nature Materials (2011). J.H. Warner, N.P. Young, A.I. Kirkland and G.A.D. Briggs.
Photostability of N@C60 in common solvents. ECS Transactions 35, 113-117 (2011). B.J. Farrington, T.J. Hingston, G.A.D. Briggs, M.R. Sambrook and K. Porfyrakis.
Functionalized fullerenes in self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir 27, 10977-10985 (2011). M.D. Gimenez-Lopez, M.T. Räisänen, T.W. Chamberlain, U. Weber, M. Lebedeva, G.A. Rance, G.A.D. Briggs, D.G. Pettifor, V.M. Burlakov, M. Buck and A.N. Khlobystov.
Quantum control in spintronics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 369, 3229-3248 (2011). A. Ardavan & G.A.D. Briggs.
Transport spectroscopy of an impurity spin in a carbon nanotube double quantum dot. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206801 (2011). S.J. Chorley, G. Giavaras, J. Wabnig, G.A.C. Jones, C.G. Smith, G.A.D. Briggs and M.R. Buitelaar.
Photochemical stability of N@C60 and its pyrrolidine derivatives. Chem. Phys. Lett. 508, 187-190 (2011). K. Porfyrakis, G. Liu, A.N. Khlobystov, A. Ardavan and G.A.D. Briggs. Selected as Editor's Choice.
Carbon nanotube nanoelectronic devices compatible with transmission electron microscopy. Nanotechnology 22, 245305 (2011). H.L. Wang, J. Luo, F. Schäffel, M. Rümmeli, G.A.D. Briggs and J.H. Warner.
Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals. Nanotechnology, 22, 195603 (2011). Y.A. Wu, A.I. Kirkland, F. Schäffel, K. Porfyrakis, N.P. Young, G.A.D. Briggs and J.H. Warner.
Atomic resolution imaging of the edges of catalytically etched suspended few layer graphene. ACS Nano 5, 1975-1983 (2011). F. Schäffel, A. Bachmatiuk, M. Rümmeli, U. Queitsch, B. Rellinghaus, G.A.D. Briggs and J.H. Warner.
Coherent state transfer between an electron- and nuclear spin in 15N@C60. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 110504 (2011). R.M. Brown, A.M. Tyryshkin, K. Porfyrakis, E.M. Gauger, B.W. Lovett, A. Ardavan, S.A. Lyon, G.A.D. Briggs and J.J.L. Morton.
Response to 'Comment on Ultrahigh secondary electron emission of carbon nanotubes' Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 66101 (2011). J. Luo, J.H. Warner and G.A.D. Briggs.
Atomic scale growth dynamics of nanocrystals within carbon nanotubes. ACS Nano, 5, 1410-1417 (2011). J.H. Warner, S.R. Plant, N.P. Young, K. Porfyrakis, A.I. Kirkland and G.A.D. Briggs.
Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of purified catalyst-free single-walled carbon nanotubes. ACS Nano 4, 7708-7716 (2010). M. Zaka, Y. Ito, H. Wang, W. Yan, A. Robertson, Y. Wu, M. Rümmeli, D. Staunton, T. Hashimoto, J.J.L. Morton, A. Ardavan, G.A.D. Briggs and J.H. Warner.
Synthesis and magnetic properties of a nitrogen containing fullerene dimer. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1, 117-121 (2010). F. Hörmann, A. Hirsch, K. Porfyrakis and G.A.D. Briggs.
High performance field effect transistors from solution processed carbon nanotubes. ACS Nano 4, 6659-6664 (2010). Correction to references 12 and 28 ACS Nano 5, 3400 (2011). H.L. Wang, J. Luo, A. Robertson, Y. Ito, W. Yan, V. Lang, M. Zaka, F. Schäffel, M. Rümmeli, G.A.D. Briggs and J.H. Warner.
Storage of multiple coherent microwave excitations in an electron spin ensemble. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140503 (2010). H. Wu, R.E. George, A. Ardavan, J.H. Wesenberg, K. Mølmer, D.I. Schuster, R.J. Schoelkopf, K.M. Itoh, J.J.L. Morton and G.A.D. Briggs. Featured in Viewpoint PhysRevLett.105.140503; News & Views, Nature 468, 44-45 (04 November 2010).
High cooperativity coupling of electron-spin ensembles to superconducting cavities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140501 (2010). D.I. Schuster, A.P. Sears, E. Ginossar, L. DiCarlo, L. Frunzio, J.J.L. Morton, H. Wu, G.A.D. Briggs and R.J. Schoelkopf. Featured in Viewpoint PhysRevLett.105.140503; News & Views, Nature 468, 44-45 (04 November 2010).
Book of the Week: Science vs. Religion: What Scientists Really Think. Times Higher Education (16 September 2010);
www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=413457&c=1 . G.A.D. Briggs.
Spin detection at elevated temperatures using a driven double quantum dot. Phys. Rev. B 82, 085410 (2010). G. Giavaras, J. Wabnig, B.W. Lovett, J.H. Jefferson and G.A.D. Briggs.Selected for the August 23, 2010 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, www.vjnano.org.
Direct imaging and chemical identification of the encapsulated metal atoms in bimetallic endofullerene peapods. ACS Nano 4, 3943-3948 (2010). R.J. Nicholls, K. Sader, J.H. Warner, S.R. Plant, K. Porfyrakis, P.D. Nellist, G.A.D. Briggs and D.J.H. Cockayne.
Electron spin coherence in metallofullerenes: Y, Sc and La@C82. Phys. Rev. B 82, 033410 (2010). R.M. Brown, Y. Ito, J.H. Warner, A. Ardavan, H. Shinohara, G.A.D. Briggs and J.J.L. Morton.
Single shot measurement in silicon single electron transistors. 2008 IEEE Silicon Electronics Workshop, 32-33 (2008); IDS Number: BPK87; ISBN: 978-1-4244-2071-1. T. Ferrus, D.A. Williams,D.G. Hasko, L. Creswell, R.J. Collier, A. Lam, Q.R. Morrissey, S.R. Burge, M.J. French and G.A.D. Briggs .
Ultrahigh secondary electron emission of carbon nanotubes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 213113 (2010). J. Luo, J.H. Warner, C. Feng, Y. Yao, Z. Jin, H. Wang, C. Pan, S. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, A.A.R. Watt, L.M. Peng, J. Zhu and G.A.D. Briggs.
Entangling remote nuclear spins linked by a chromophore. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200501 (2010). M. Schaffry, V. Filidou, S.D. Karlen, E.M. Gauger, S.C. Benjamin, H.L. Anderson, A. Ardavan, G.A.D. Briggs. K. Maeda, K.B. Henbest, F. Giustino, J.J.L. Morton and B.W. Lovett.
Experimental and theoretical analysis of H-bonding supramolecular assemblies of PTCDA molecules. Phys. Rev. B 81, 195412 (2010). M. Mura, X. Sun, F. Silly, H.T. Jonkman, G.A.D. Briggs, M.R. Castell and L.N. Kantorovich.
Magnetic field sensing using a driven double quantum dot. Physica E 42, 895-898 (2010). G. Giavaras, J. Wabnig, B.W. Lovett, J. H. Jefferson and G.A.D. Briggs.
Intricate hydrogen-bonded networks: binary and ternary combinations of uracil, PTCDI and melamine. J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 5859-5866 (2010). J.A. Gardener, O.Y. Shvarova, G.A.D. Briggs and M.R. Castell.
Exchange interactions of spin-active metallofullerenes in solid-state carbon networks. Phys. Rev. B 81, 075424 (2010). M. Zaka, J.H. Warner, Y. Ito, J.J.L. Morton, M.H. Rümmeli, T. Pichler, A. Ardavan, H. Shinohara and G.A.D. Briggs.
Nanoethics: Big Ethical Issues with Small Technology , By Dónal P. O’Mathúna. Times Higher Education 1935, 48-49 (18-24 February 2010); www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=410398. G.A.D. Briggs.
Controlling intermolecular spin interactions of La@C82 in empty fullerene matrices. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 1618-1623 (2010). Y. Ito, J.H. Warner, R. Brown, M. Zaka, R. Pfeiffer, T. Aono, N. Izumi, H. Okimoto, J.J.L. Morton, A. Ardavan, H. Shinohara, H. Kuzmany, H. Peterlik and G.A.D. Briggs.
Endohedral metallofullerenes in self-assembled monolayers. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 123-131 (2010). M.C. Gimenez-Lopez, J. Gardener, A. Iwasiewicz-Wabnig, K. Porfyrakis, C. Balmer, G. Dantelle, A.Q. Shaw, M. Hadjipanayi, A. Crossley, N.R. Champness, M.R. Castell, G.A.D. Briggs and A.N. Khlobystov.
Silicon quantum electronics
Dr J. A. Mol and Professor G. A. D. Briggs
Quantum information embodied in spins in silicon can be manipulated very precisely, and can persist for over three hours. Quantum computers made from silicon materials would benefit from the great industrial development of silicon processing and nanofabrication. Much of previous research in silicon for quantum computing has used donor impurities in bulk crystals. The great challenges now are to learn how to measure the states and control the interactions of a small numbers of spins in silicon. This project will seek to develop control techniques that will be sufficiently precise to allow fault-tolerant error-correction in silicon devices with small numbers of spins. Scalable quantum technologies will need to meet and surpass certain accuracy thresholds to demonstrate quantum error correction. The goal of the project will be to exceed these thresholds using impurity and quantum dot spins in silicon devices. For this you will investigate magnetic resonance in both many-spin and single-spin regimes. You will need to have, or to acquire early in the project, good knowledge of physics, magnetic resonance, quantum information, and semiconductor materials.
DNA sequencing using graphene nanoelectrodes
Dr J. A. Mol and Professor G. A. D. Briggs
Single strand DNA sequencing is a rapidly developing field of research on the cutting edge of physics, biology and chemistry. Solid state nanopores are currently being researched by Oxford Nanopore Technologies to form the basis for next-generation DNA sequencing tools. This includes the evaluation of graphene as a membrane for DNA sequencing applications. There is great need to develop methods for fabricating holes and gaps in graphene membranes that are scalable enough to be part of a production process. We are looking for a DPhil student who will develop suspended graphene devices that have the potential to meet the requirements for solid state nano-pores, and will:
1. Optimise the nanogap size for analyte molecules of interest.
2. Incorporate our suspended graphene nanogaps into the kind of instrumentation which Oxford Nanopores already uses.
3. Characterise the signals which we can measure from a range of analytes.
4. Seek to improve the geometry in order to optimise the nanogap/nanopore structures for commercial applications.
5. Develop recognition tunnelling as an electronic single-molecule sequencing method for DNA.
The goal is to develop arrays of 10s to 100s of nanopore/nanogap sensing elements integrated with an ASIC for single molecule detection. Following an initial proof of concept, the DPhil student will be working closely with Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ team to manufacture the device at scale and increase the array density to 1000s of channels.
Quantum interference in single-molecule devices
Dr J. A. Mol, Professor G. A. D. Briggs and Professor H. L. Anderson*
Quantum interference offers a rich resource which could be exploited in molecular devices. If there are multiple pathways for energy transport through a molecule, or if electrical transport is subject to resonances within a molecule, then these effects could be exploited for practical technologies. For example, it may be possible to make transistors with much lower power consumption than current silicon CMOS, and it may be possible to develop improvement of thermovoltaic materials for scavenging heat that would otherwise be wasted. Understanding such phenomena may also shed light on postulated quantum coherent processes in biology, ranging from photosynthesis to bird navigation.
The project will require nanofabrication of carbon-based devices into which individual molecules can be inserted. The current through the molecules will be measured with a view to discovering mechanisms of quantum interference. A major challenge will be to devise and fabricate geometries with additional gates to control the quantum interference. The project will involve nanofabrication, chemical attachment of the molecules, and electrical measurements over a range of temperatures and frequencies, with especial regard to discovering the conditions under which quantum coherence can be found. A successful outcome will be to find regimes in which quantum coherence gives enhanced device performance.
* Department of Chemistry
Chip-based atomic clocks
E A Laird / G A D Briggs
Atomic clocks are among the most precise scientific instruments ever made, and are key to advanced navigation, secure communication, and radar technology. We are pursuing a new approach to create a clock that will fit on a chip. Instead of atomic vapours, we will use electron and nuclear spins in endohedral fullerene molecules, whose energy levels offer an exquisitely stable frequency reference. To make this novel approach work, we must overcome a range of physics and engineering challenges, including detecting spin resonance from a small number of spins, identifying the energy levels involved, and miniaturizing the control electronics and magnet. The reward will be a completely new technology with a wide range of civilian and military uses. We are looking for a candidate who has a strong interest in applying quantum physics in new technology, and is motivated to develop the new and demanding electronic measurement techniques that will be necessary.
Putting the mechanics into quantum mechanics: creating superpositions of motion using vibrating carbon nanotubes
E A Laird / N Ares / GAD Briggs
The quantum mechanics of microscopic objects such as atoms and spins is well established. But what about larger objects? Can we verify true quantum behavior for these?
As a first step to answering this question, we plan to create and measure quantum superpositions of nanoscale mechanical devices. Although tiny by everyday standards, even the smallest fabricated device contains thousands of atoms. We will make use of suspended vibrating carbon nanotubes. These possess many attractive features for creating mechanical quantum superpositions, including low mass, large quantum level spacing, and comparatively large zero-point motion. Our goal is to carry out a foundational test of quantum mechanics – the Leggett-Garg test – that falsifies the hypothesis of classical behavior in this device. This project will focus on creating and probing so-called “macroscopically distinct” superpositions, such as a superposition of zero and ten phonons in the same device. These challenging experiments on tiny devices are the first step on a long road to discovering whether quantum mechanics applies to macroscopic objects.
Carbon-based quantum devices characterised electrically and by imaging
Dr E. A. Laird, Dr J. H. Warner and Professor G. A. D. Briggs
Carbon nanomaterials are attractive materials for electronic devices, especially for quantum computers using the spin of single electrons. One challenge in realising these applications is that the detailed device structure cannot be fully controlled during fabrication. The aim of this project is to characterize the same devices both through electrical measurements and by high-resolution electron microscopy, with the aim of understanding the electronic properties in terms of the atomic structure.
The goal of project will be to determine how the bandstructure and spin-orbit coupling of carbon nanotubes depend on the atomic structure – in particular on the chirality, which describes how the carbon atoms are aligned. Through aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRTEM), it is possible to measure the chiral indices of individual nanotubes, but so far this has not been performed on nanotubes integrated into electronic devices. You will combine these two kinds of measurement by incorporating a TEM window into existing fabrication technology for ultra-low-disorder nanotubes. You will then make electrical measurements of selected devices in a dilution refrigerator, with the aim of correlating the measured spin-orbit coupling to the previously determined chirality and comparing with existing theoretical predictions.
Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.