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Angus Kirkland

Professor Angus Kirkland
Professor of Materials
Fellow of Linacre College

Department of Materials
University of Oxford
16 Parks Road
Oxford OX1 3PH
UK

Tel: +44 1865 273662 (Room 154.30.07)
Tel: +44 1865 273700 (switchboard)
Fax: +44 1865 283333

Electron Image Analysis Group

Summary of Interests

Ultra High Resolution Electron Microscopy. Image Simulation and Processing. The investigation of new approaches to quantitative microscopy (theory and experiment). Structural Studies of inorganic oxides and surfaces. The development of new detectors for imaging with high energy electrons. Aberration Corrected Electron Optics. Imaging radiation sensitive materials. Nanocrystalline metal and metal oxide catalysts. Diffractive imaging without lenses.

 

 

Current Research Projects

Aberration-corrected electron microscopy for high resolution analysis and imaging
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. P.D. Nellist, Dr. N.P. Young
As part of a major research grant, the Department has secured funding which enables us to work closely with an electron microscope manufacturer in developing the next generation of high performance electron microscopes. The new instrument includes a field-emission-gun, two aberration correctors and various advanced detectors which provide analysis and spatial resolution capabilities at the 1 angstrom level. The instrument is being used for atomic-scale investigations of a range of new materials. (Funded by the Joint Infrastructure Fund)

Three-dimensional imaging and analysis through scanning confocal electron microscopy
Dr. P.D. Nellist, Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. P. Wang, L. Jones, Professor L. Allen*
The department has installed the world's first electron microscope with aberration correctors in both the condenser (probe-forming) and objective (image forming) lenses. It is possible to use both lens systems together to form a confocal microscope, which allows atomic resolution imaging and analysis in two dimensions simultaneous with nanometre-scale resolution in the third dimension. We are attempting to apply this technique to a diverse range of materials from buried interfaces in semiconductor devices to screw dislocation core structures. (*University of Melbourne, Australia) Funded by Leverhulme Trust.

Theory of Aberration Corrected Imaging
Professor A.I. Kirkland
This project will investigate the theory of imaging under aberration corrected imaging conditions using the recently installed double Cs aberration corrected TEM in the Department.

Novel Approaches to Direct Object Reconstruction in Transmission Electron Microscopy
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. K. Borisenko
All Transmission Electron Microscope Images are resolution limited by the aberrations of the objective lens. This project aims to develop novel approaches to overcoming these limitations through direct reconstruction from combinations of imaging and diffraction experiments capable of achieving sub Angstrom resolution.

New Detectors for Transmission Electron Microscopy
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. G. Moldovan, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw, Dr. C. Lin, Dr. L. Cervera
Current generation imaging detectors for Transmission Electron Microscopy rely on a complex electron-photon conversion chain with the photons being detected by Charge Coupled Devices. As a result the overall sensitivity of these systems is poor and they are limited in their frame rate. We aim to construct the next generation of direct electron detector and this project will involve both computation and ultimately fabrication of a prototype device. (Funded by Leverhulme Trust)

Quantitative Atomic resolution Imaging
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. K. Borisenko, Dr. J. Kim
Almost all structural information derived from High Resolution Electron Microscopy relies on qualitative matching of observed and calculated image contrast. This project aims to investigate the fundamental reasons as to why the calculated and measured intensities differ by significant amounts and to develop quantitative approaches to image matching.

Tilt- and through-focus series image reconstruction techniques for super-reconstruction electron microscopy
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. K. Borisenko
We are developing numerical techniques for reconstructing exit-waves from crystals to enable us to extract both the amplitudes and phases of diffracted beams. In this way the useable information in lattice imaging can be extended.

7 public active projects

Research Publications

Carter, R., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Lindan, P.J.D., Lin, G., Green, M.L.H., Vlandas, A., Hutchison, J.L. and Harding, J. (2006). 'Correlation of structural and electronic properties in a new low-dimensional form of mercury telluride' Physical Review Letters 96(21).

Chang, L.Y., Kirkland, A.I. and Titchmarsh, J.M. (2006). 'On the importance of fifth-order spherical aberration for a fully corrected electron microscope' Ultramicroscopy 106(4-5) 301-306.

Doblinger, M., Winkelman, G.B., Dwyer, C., Marsh, C., Kirkland, A.I., Cockayne, D.J.H. and Hoffmann, M.J. (2006). 'Structural and compositional comparison of Si3N4 ceramics with different fracture modes' Acta Materialia 54(7) 1949-1956.

Flahaut, E., Sloan, J., Friedrichs, S., Kirkland, A.I., Coleman, K.S., Williams, V.C., Hanson, N., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2006). 'Crystallization of 2H and 4H PbI2 in carbon nanotubes of varying diameters and morphologies' Chemistry of Materials 18(8) 2059-2069.

Hetherington, C., Kirkland, A., Doole, R., Cockayne, D., Titchmarsh, J. and Hutchison, J. (2006). 'High resolution imaging using the Oxford abberation corrected TEM'. Microscopy and Microanalysis 11 1454-1455.

Lovely, G.R., Brown, A.P., Brydson, R., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Chang, L., Jefferson, D.A., Falke, M. and Bleloch, A. (2006). 'Observation of octahedral cation coordination on the 111 surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles' Applied Physics Letters 88(9).

Lovely, G.R., Brown, A.P., Brydson, R., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Chang, L.Y., Jefferson, D.A., Falke, M. and Bleloch, A. (2006). 'HREM of the 111 surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles' Micron 37(5) 389-395.

Marsh, H.L., Deak, D.S., Silly, F., Kirkland, A.I. and Castell, M.R. (2006). 'Hot STM of nanostructure dynamics on SrTiO3(001)' Nanotechnology 17(14) 3543-3548.

Nellist, P.D., Behan, G., Kirkland, A.I. and Hetherington, C.J.D. (2006). 'Confocal operation of a transmission electron microscope with two aberration correctors' Applied Physics Letters 89(12).

Pennycook, S.J., Varela, M., Hetherington, C.J.D. and Kirkland, A.I. (2006). 'Materials advances through aberration-corrected electron microscopy' Mrs Bulletin 31(1) 36-43.

Pyper, N.C., Kirkland, A.I. and Harding, J.H. (2006). 'Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride' Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 18(2) 683-702.

Sloan, J., Carter, R., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Vlandas, A., Green, M.L.H. and Hutchison, J.L. (2006). 'Image restoration of one-dimensional HgTe crystals formed within single walled carbon nanotubes'. "Advanced Materials Forum Iii, Pts 1 and 2". 514-516 1131-1134.

Friedrichs, S., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Sloan, J. and Green, M.L.H. (2005). 'LaI2@(18,3)SWNT: The unprecedented structure of a LaI2 "Crystal," encapsulated within a single-walled carbon nanotube' Microscopy and Microanalysis 11(5) 421-430.

Hetherington, C.J.D., Cockayne, D.J.H., Doole, R.C., Hutchison, J.L., Kirkland, A.I. and Titchmarsh, J.M. (2005). 'Aberration-corrected HREM/STEM for semiconductor research'. "Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials". Cullis, A.G.,Hutchison, J.L. 107 177-182.

Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, M.R., Sloan, J. and Hutchison, J.L. (2005). 'Structure determination of atomically controlled crystal architectures grown within single wall carbon nanotubes' Microscopy and Microanalysis 11(5) 401-409.

Chang, L.Y., Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I.: 'Calculations of HREM image intensity using Monte Carlo integration' Ultramicroscopy 104 (3-4) (2005) 271-280.

Chang, L.Y., Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I.: 'Calculations of HREM image intensity using monte carlo integration' Microscopy And Microanalysis 11 (2005) 600.

Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., Kasama, T., Cervera, L., Twitchett, A.C., Midgley, P.A., Robins, A.C., Smith, D.W., Gronsky, J.J., Thomas, C.M., Fischione, P.E., Hetherington, C.J.D. and Kirkland, A.I.: 'Aberration correction: some advantages and alternatives' Microscopy And Microanalysis 10 (2005) 22.

Hutchison, J.L., Titchmarsh, J.M., Cockayne, D.J.H., Doole, R.C., Hetherington, C.J.D., Kirkland, A.I. and Sawada, H.: 'A versatile double aberration-corrected, energy filtered HREM/STEM for materials science' Ultramicroscopy 103 (1) (2005) 7-15.

Hutchison, J.L., Titchmarsh, J.M., Cockayne, D.J.H., Hetherington, C.J.D., Kirkland, A.I., Doole, R.C. and Sawada, H.: 'A new double-corrected HREM/STEM and its applications for advanced materials' Microscopy And Microanalysis 10 (2005) 8.

Kirkland, A.I. and Chang, L.Y.: 'An assessment of imaging models for exit wave restoration' Microscopy And Microanalysis 11 (2005) 2152.

Sawada, H., Tomita, T., Naruse, M., Honda, T., Hambridge, P., Hartel, P., Haider, M., Hetherington, C., Doole, R., Kirkland, A., Hutchison, J., Titchmarsh, J. and Cockayne, D.: 'Experimental evaluation of a spherical aberration-corrected TEM and STEM' Journal Of Electron Microscopy 54 (2) (2005) 119-121.

Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Carter, R., Meyer, R.R., Vlandas, A. and Hutchison, J.L.: 'Image restoration of one-dimensional HgTe crystals formed within walled carbon nanotubes' Microscopy And Microanalysis 11 198.

Friedrichs, S., Sloan, J., Meyer, R.R., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H.: 'Characterisation of LaI2@(18 3)SWNT Encapsulation Composite - A 1D LaI2 Crystal fragment adopting the reduced structrue of LaI3' Microscopy And Microanalysis 9 (2004) 324.

Sloan, J., Langley, K.L., Day, E.V., Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Studies of variations in insertion cations in Intergrowth Tungsten Bronzes (ITBs). Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 71-74.

Sloan, J., Langley, K.L., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Sayagues, M.J., Tilley, R.J.D. and Hutchison, J.L. (2004). Structural studies of a modulated quaternary layered perovskite. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 229-232.

Sloan, J., Luzzi, D.E., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H.: 'Imaging and characterization of molecules and one-dimensional crystals formed within carbon nanotubes.' Mrs Bulletin 29 (4) (2004) 265-271.

Thamavaranukup, N., Hoppe, H.A., Ruiz-Gonzalez, L., Costa, P., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A. and Green, M.L.H.: 'Single-walled carbon nanotubes filled with M OH (M = K, Cs) and then washed and refilled with clusters and molecules.' Chemical Communications (15) (2004) 1686-1687.

Titchmarsh, J.M., Cockayne, D.J.H., Doole, R.C., Hetherington, C.J.D., Hutchison, J.L., Kirkland, A.I. and Sawada, H. (2004). A versatile double aberration-corrected, energy filtered HREM/STEM for materials science. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 27.

Vlandas, A., Carter, R., Sorsa, S., Flahaut, E., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). Encapsulation of semiconductors in double wall carbon nanotubes. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 345.

Carter, R., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). A one-dimensional semiconductor crystal with differentially rotating atomic layers formed within a single-walled carbon nanotube. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 351.

Chang, L.Y., Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Calculations of limited coherence for high resolution electron microscopy. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 345-348.

Chang, L.Y., Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Models of coherence for High Resolution Electron Microscopy. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 435.

Doblinger, M., Cockayne, D.J.H., Meyer, R.R., Kirkland, A.I. and Nguyen-Manh, D. (2004). Induced order in intergranular films in Si3N4 ceramics. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 59.

Friedrichs, S., Kirkland, A.I. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). Combined characterisation of the structural and physical properties of single walled cardbon nanotube composites. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 317.

Friedrichs, S., Philp, E., Meyer, R.R., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). LaI2@(18,3)SWNT: the crystallisation behaviour of a LaI2 fragment, confined within a single-walled carbon nanotube. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 455-458.

Hsieh, W.K., Chen, F.R., Kai, J.J. and Kirkland, A.I.: 'Resolution extension and exit wave reconstruction in complex HREM.' Ultramicroscopy 98 (2-4) (2004) 99-114.

Hsieh, W.K., Chen, F.R., Kai, J.J. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Resolution extrension and exit wave reconstruction in complex HREM. APEM, Japan Society for Microscopy.

Hutchison, J.L., Allsop, N., Kirkland, A.I., Hetherington, C.J.D., Titchmarsh, J.M., Cockayne, D.J.H. and Dobson, P.J. (2004). Optimisd HREM imaging of CdSe nanoparticles. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 93.

Hutchison, J.L., Kirkland, A.I., Sloan, J. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). Growing 1D crystals inside carbon nanotubes: new nanostructures from old materials. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 93.

Hutchison, J.L., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Green, M.L.H. and Green, M.L.H.: 'Growing and characterizing one-dimensional crystals within single-walled carbon nanotubes.' Journal Of Electron Microscopy 53 (2) (2004) 101-106.

Kirkland, A.I. and Meyer, R.R. (2004). Indirect transmission electron microscopy; Aberration measurement and compensation and exit wave reconstruction. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 331-336.

Kirkland, A.I. and Meyer, R.R.: '"Indirect" high-resolution transmission electron microscopy: Aberration measurement and wavefunction reconstruction.' Microscopy And Microanalysis 10 (4) (2004) 401-413.

Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Cockayne, D.J.H., Hetherington, C.J.D., Hutchison, J.L. and Titchmarsh, J.M. (2004). Exit wave reconstruction using an energy filtered aberration corrected TEM. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 49.

Kirkland, A.I., Titchmarsh, J.M., Hutchison, J.L., Cockayne, D.J.H., Hetherington, C.J.D., Doole, R.C., Sawada, H., Haider, M. and Hartel, P.: 'A double aberration corrected, energy filtered HREM/STEM.' Jeol News 39 (1) (2004) 2.

Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Automated Object Wave Restoration from Combined Tilt Focus Series. APEM, Japan Society for Microscopy.

Meyer, R.R. and Kirkland, A.I. (2004). Measuring isoplanaticity in high-resolution electron microscopy. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 199-202.

Meyer, R.R., Kirkland, A.I., Dovey, M., Cockayne, D.J.H. and Jeffreys, P. (2004). Remote microscopy using the grid. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003: 173-176.

Meyer, R.R., Kirkland, A.I. and Saxton, W.O.: 'A new method for the determination of the wave aberration function for high-resolution TEM. 2. Measurement of the antisymmetric aberrations.' Ultramicroscopy 99 (2-3) (2004) 115-123.

Sawada, H., Tomita, T., Kaneyama, T., Hosokawa, F., Naruse, M., Honda, T., Hartel, P., Haider, M., Tanaka, N., Hetherington, C.J.D., Doole, R.C., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L., Titchmarsh, J.M. and Cockayne, D.J.H.: 'Cs corrector for illumination.' Microscopy and Microanalysis 10 (Suppl 2) (2004) 976.

Titchmarsh, J.M. and Cockayne, D.J.H. (2004). 200kV TEM with Cs correctors for illumination and imaging. APEM, Japan Society for Microscopy.

Sloan, J., Carter, R., Philp, E., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). Super-resolved imaging of twisted 1D crystals formed within single walled carbon nanotubes. Proceedings of the 13th Electron Microscopy Conference. Antwerp, Belgium. 2: 321.

Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L., Friedrichs, S. and Green, M.L.H. (2004). Synthesis and Structural Characterisation of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ionic and Covalent Materials. Molecular Nanowires and other Quantum Objects. Alexandrov, A.S., Kluwer Academic Publishers: 77-88.

Alexandrou I., Sano N., Burrows A., Meyer R.R., Wang H., Kirkland A.I., Kiely C.J. and Amaratunga G.A.J.: 'Structural investigation of MoSi2 core-shell nano-particles pormed by arc discharge in water' Nanotechnology 14, 913 (2003).

Meyer R.R. and Kirkland A.I.: 'Characterisation of the signal and noise transfer of CCD cameras for electron detection' SPIE Press, (2003), p. 184-196.

Sayagues M., Titmuss K., Meyer R., Kirkland A., Sloan J., Hutchison J. and Tilley R.: 'Structural characterization of the n=5 layered perovskite neodymium titanate using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and image reconstruction' Acta Crystallographica Section B- Structural Science 59, 449-455 (2003).

Chang, L.Y., Chen, F.R., Kirkland, A.I. and Kai, J.J.: 'Calculations of spherical aberration-corrected imaging behaviour.' Journal Of Electron Microscopy 52 (4) (2003) 359-364.

Chen, F.R., Chang, L.Y. and Kirkland, A.I.: 'Calculations of spherical aberration-corrected imaging behaviour.' Journal Of Electron Microscopy 52 (359) (2003)

Meyer, R.R., Friedrichs, S., Kirkland, A.I., Sloan, J., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H.: 'A composite method for the determination of the chirality of single walled carbon nanotubes.' Journal Of Microscopy-Oxford 212 (2003) 152-157.

Philp, E., Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Meyer, R.R., Friedrichs, S., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H.: 'An encapsulated helical one-dimensional cobalt iodide nanostructure.' Nature Materials 2 (12) (2003) 788-791.

Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H.: 'Aspects of crystal growth within carbon nanotubes.' Comptes Rendus Physique 4 (9) (2003) 1063-1074.

Sloan, J., Kirkland, A.I., Hutchison, J.L. and Green, M.L.H. (2003). Integral Atomic Layer Architectures of 1D Crystals Inserted into Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Electron MIcroscopy of Nanotubes. Wang, Z.L. and Hui, C., Kluwer Press. Ch 12: 273-300.

Kirkland A.I. and Sloan J.: 'Direct and indirect electron microscopy of encapsulated nanocrystals' Topics in Catalysis 21, 139-154 (2002).

Sloan J., Kirkland A.I., Hutchison J.L. and Green M.L.H.: 'Structural characterization of atomically regulated nanocrystals formed within single-walled carbon nanotubes using electron microscopy' Accounts of Chemical Research 35, 1054-1062 (2002).

Projects Available

Understanding Zeolite Catalysts
Professor A I Kirkland

Zeolites are one of the worlds most important catalysts but their structures are still relatively poorly understood. This project which is co-sponsored by Johnson Matthey aims to understand how these catalysts evolve and degrade. The project will involve advanced electron microscopy under low dose conditions and possibly X-Ray synchrotron studies and computer modelling. There may be opportinities for direct placement with the Industrial partner.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Ultra high resolution imaging of soft (biological) materials
A Kirkland

This project aims to extend many of the ultra high resolution imaging techniques that have been developed for imaging hard (radiation resistant) materials to soft materials including biological structures. This is an entirely new area and projects will be available in experimental, theoretical and computational areas or combinations of these. Part of this work may involve collaboration with the MRC laboratories in Oxford.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Quantitative atomic resolution imaging
A Kirkland

Almost all structural information derived from High Resolution Electron Microscopy relies on qualitative matching of observed and calculated images. This project aims to investigate the fundamental reasons as to why the calculated and measured image contrast differs by significant amounts and to develop new quantitative approaches to image matching that can be applied to a range of structural problems.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Charge sensitive imaging
A Kirkland

“If one knew the positions of all the electrons in a material, there would be no need to find where the nuclei are”. Traditional electron microscopy determines the nuclei positions and we are now aiming to develop methods for locating the electrons. This will revolutionise the study of almost all materials and will provide a new level of structural information for comparison with theoretical models. This project will aim to establish new methods using oxides and low dimensional materials including Graphene as test materials using aberration TEM with advanced image simulation incorporating Density Functional Theory.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Structural studies of Graphene and other 2D crystals with single atom sensitivity
Jamie Warner, Angus Kirkland

Graphene is a 2D crystal only one atom thick and is ideal for studying individual atoms by transmission electron microscopy. This project will focus on understanding fundamental crystal defects in graphene and other 2D crystals such as boron nitride, MoS2 and WS2. Mono-vacancies and the other non-6 member ring structures that exist in the unique 2D crystal. It will also investigate the grain boundary interface between two graphene domains with the aim of mapping out the unique atomic stitching that occurs. Graphene will be grown by chemical vapour deposition. This project will use Oxford's state-of-the-art aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscope, equipped with a monochromator for the electron beam to give unprecedent spatial resolution at a low accelerating voltage of 80 kV. Advanced image analysis techniques, including exit-wave reconstruction, and comparison to image simulations will be utilized for a deeper understanding of the atomic structure.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland Jamie Warner

Image reconstruction techniques for super-reconstruction electron microscopy
A Kirkland

We are developing techniques for reconstructing the exit wavefunction of various specimens from images recorded with different focus values or with different illumination tilts. In this way it is possible to obtain fully quantitative structural data at higher resolution than the instrinsic limit set by the optics of the electron microscope. This project will apply this approach to a variety of nanomaterials with the aim of understanding their structure property relationships at higher spatial resolution than is otherwise possible.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Applications of aberration-corrected high resolution electron microscopy
A Kirkland

The department has installed one of the world’s few electron microscopes with aberration correctors in both the condenser (probe-forming) and objective (image forming) lenses and with a unique monochromated electron source. This instrument is capable of recording images with 70pm resolution. Several projects are available that will develop experimental, theoretical and computational techniques for exploiting aberration corrected imaging. Possible materials candidates for experimental and theoretical studies include complex oxide ceramics, surfaces, nanocatalysts and carbon nanotubes.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Nanocrystalline metal and metal oxide catalysts
A Kirkland

Nanocrystalline metal and metal oxide particles play a key role in catalysis. This project aims to characterize these materials, and in particular their surfaces and shapes using combinations of high resolution imaging and three dimensional tomographic reconstruction. The project will also involve interactions with theoretical modelling groups and for suitable systems prototype catalytic studies. 

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Ultimate microscopy without lenses
A Kirkland

All Transmission Electron Microscope Images are resolution limited by the aberrations of the objective lens. This project aims to develop radical new approaches to overcoming these limitations by processing diffraction data thus avoiding the need for a good (or even any) lens. The approaches developed will form part of a multi University program and the Diamond Synchrotron investigating imaging and diffraction using a variety of radiation sources.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Studies of rapid phase-change and resistive memory materials for information storage
Professor A I Kirkland / Dr K Borisenko

Phase change memory materials based on chalcogenide alloys and resistive memory materials based on metal oxides are an important class of industrial materials, which find applications in electronic storage and rewritable memory. The operation of phase-change memory is based on fast and reversible phase transformation between amorphous and crystalline forms which have different properties. Similarly, resistive memory operates by transition between states that have different resistivities. Despite their wide commercial applications the exact mechanism describing fast phase transitions or resistance changes remains unclear. To understand the ways in which performance of memory devises using such materials can be improved, accurate structure properties correlations are required. The project will involve preparation of new phase change and resistive memory materials and investigation of their atomic structures using advanced diffraction and imaging techniques as well as theoretical simulations. The electric and optical properties of the materials will be also measured and correlated with their structures

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Investigation of atomic structures of bioactive glasses for biomedical applications
A I Kirkland / K Borisenko

Bioactive glasses play a key role in bone tissue engineering due to their ability to form strong bond with the living tissues . This is often related to the ability of such glasses to precipitate bone-compatible hydroxyapatite phasesat rhe surface. It is also  observed that their bioactivity can be modified by various additives or dopants. However, the mechanisms of the hydroxyapatite formation and the influence of dopants/additives and composition of the glass on  hydroxyapatite precipitation are poorly understood. This is in part related to the fact that there is no reliable experimental information on structures of such glasses. In the project we will study the atomic structures of various bioactive glasses prepared by different methods and containing different additives using advanced electron selected area and nanodiffraction, reduced density function (RDF) analysis, imaging and modelling methods.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Structural anisotropy properties correlations in materials for electronics and photonics
A Kirkland / K Borisenko

Chalcogenide phase change memory materials (for example, Ge2Sb2Te5, GST) find applications as electronic memory storage materials. In these materials the phase change, and therefore information storage, can be initiated by laser or electric pulses. It has recently been suggested that by using polarised light to initiate the phase change it may be possible to control the  anisotropic structures. In GST materials this could add an extra parameter  to increase the fundamental storage density. In the project we will prepare new chalcogenide-based phase-change memory materials with dopants that are likely to induce anisotropic properties and study their atomic structures .  The project will also involve measurements of the optical and electric properties of the prepared materials and the building of computed models describing structure – property correlations. The project will involve electron micrsoscopy, computer modelling and studies at the Diamond Synchrotron.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Ultrafast Electron Microscopy
A Kirkland

Modern electron microscope can provide information at the atomic scale in the spatial dimemsion. The next generation of instruments will also provide temporal resolutions in the fs regime. This project will investigate solutions to providng temporal resoltuions from the ms to micro s timescale to bridge the gap between the limits imposed by current detectors and possible future pulsed electron sources.

Also see homepages: Angus Kirkland

Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.