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Jan Czernuszka

Professor Jan Czernuszka
Assoicate Professor of Materials
Fellow of Trinity College

Department of Materials
University of Oxford
16 Parks Road
Oxford OX1 3PH

Tel: +44 1865 273771 (Room 110.10.15)
Tel: +44 1865 273700 (switchboard)
Fax: +44 1865 273764

Summary of Interests

Interaction of biochemicals with ceramics. 3-D scaffolds for tissue engineering. Development of  hierachically controlled structures. Mechanical properties of natural materials.  Self-inflating tissue expanders.

  • CBI/Toshiba Year of Invention, winner of University section, 1993
  • APAX/ Oxford University Business Plan Competition, 2004
  • Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Most cited author 2006-2009
  • Founding Scientist of Oxtexs Ltd 2011
  • OBN Award for Best Emerging Medical Device Company 2011


Current Research Projects

Tissue engineering constructs for vascularized bone regeneration
N. Chang, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Professor J.T. Triffitt*, Professor U. Opperman*, Dr. J. Dunford, Professor P.G. Robey**
The vascularization of tissue engineering constructs is a hurdle that must be overcome in order for the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering to progress. In order to stimulate vascularization (formation of blood vessels de novo) and angiogenesis (budding of pre-existing blood vessels) into our constructs, a mixture of osteogenic cells as well as unique biomaterials must be utilized, along with the addition of various growth factors and other additives in order to promote vessel formation by both seeded, as well as endogenous endothelial cells. Vessel formation alone is not sufficient, however, because it must be shown that such newly formed blood vessels lead to the formation of proper bone structure and sustained bone growth and turnover in vivo. A systematic study of the various cells, scaffolds, and growth factors necessary to stimulate vascularized bone regeneration in vivo is in progress. (*Botnar Research Lab., Oxford; **NIH Labs Bethseda USA. Funded by NIH-MRC).

Interpernetrating polymer network hydrogels for controlled self expansion.
Dr. J.H. Lee, P. Maneepairoj, Professor D.G. Bucknall**, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Mr. M.C. Swan *
A range of novel degradable polymer interpenetrating network systems are being developed for use in a range of clinical applications. The primarynetwork comprises a hydrogel system that can expand and swell when in coantact with body fluid, and the second interpenetrating network is biodegradable. By this means we can control the overall swelling repsonse of these hydrogels. (*Dept of Plastic Surgery, Oxford; **Georgia Tech, USA)

Anisotropic self-expanding tissue expanders
Z. Radzi, P. Maneepairoj, Dr. J.H. Lee, Mr C. Swan*, Mr T.E.E. Goodacre*, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Professor D.G. Bucknall **
Self-inflating tissue expanders are being developed whereby the expansion is solely uni-directional. The final expansion is controlled to provide maximum new tissue: the rate of expansion is controlled to prevent necrosis: a time-delay is incorporated to allow adjacent tissue to heal before expansion commences. These devices are unigue and will be used in Oral, Dental and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Examination and treatment of shoulder cuff tear.
J. Smith, J Tilley, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Professor A. Carr*
Shoulder cuff damage is a common case that requires improved methods of repair and treatment. This project examines the structure, properties and composition of intact, torn, damaged and diseased tendons in the shoulder, with a view to understanding what the changes do to the biomechanical performance of the shoulder. The next step is to then provide a clinically desirable treatment. (*Botnar Research Lab., Oxford; Funded by NIH)

Vasculariztion in soft tissue and angiogenesis
A. Yahyaouche, M. Tamaddon, X. Du, Mr. A.J.P. Clover *, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka
Vascularization of 3-D tissues is the key 'next step' in the realisation of the replacement and augmentation of damaged and diseased tissues. This study examines the role of scaffold mesostructure on network capillary formation. Microchannels, pore structure and the incorporation of growth factors all play individual and combined roles in capillary bud formation and growth. (*University College, Cork, RoI)

Musculoskeletal tissue regeneration
Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, R. Walton, Professor J.T. Triffitt*, Z. Xia**, Professor A. El Haj***, Dr. S. Cartmell***, S. Halliday, M. Tamaddon
Bone is a highly vasucalarised and is the most transplanted tissue after blood. These sets of projects aim to highlight the issues which need to be addressed to regenerate bone, cartilage tissue and hybrid structures. (*Nuffield Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery; **Swansea Univeristy; ***Keele University)

Tissue Engineering of Heart Valves
Q. Chen, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Professor Sir Magdi Yacoub*, Dr. P. Taylor*, Dr. A. Chester*, Y-T. Tseng
Scaffolds for tissue engineering of heart valves are being fabricated using the novel fabrication routes developed in our laboratory. The scaffolds comprise collagen, and other ECM components, and pores, and these are arranged in a specific and sytematic manner to encourage the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The performance of the scaffolds is monitored through changes in cell phenotype, tissue regeneration and mechanical property changes. The influence of bioreactor perfomance is being monitored. (*Heart Science Centre, Harefield Hospital)

Three Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
X. Du, Q. Chen, Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Dr. C. Liu*
Scaffolds are being fabricated using novel ink jet printing techniques. The printing design and processing capabilities are being assessed and tailored to produce highly specified constructs. The mesostructure is being tailored to encourage vascularisation and subsequent tissue incorporation. The nanostructure, microstructure and mesostructure are all being tailored to optimise the degradation rate and mechanical properties. (*University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne )

Tissue Engineering and three-dimensional scaffolds
Dr. J.T. Czernuszka
Three dimensional scaffolds are being developed for several major tissue engineering applications. There are extensive collaborations with research groups nationally and internationally and we are using tissue engineering to prepare bone, cartilage, arteries, heart muscles, heart valves and liver.

Properties of biocomposites
Dr. J.T. Czernuszka
Composites of natural polymers and sparingly soluble solids based on natural systems are being made and their microstructures and architectures together with their properties are being determined. New models of how this class of materials behave are being formulated.

Design and fabrication of ceramic: biochemical: polymer composites
Dr. J.T. Czernuszka, Professor E. Bres*, Professor W. Hosseini**
Additions of bio-chemicals, such as amino acids or lipids, either to the growth medium or onto the surface of polymeric substrates influence strongly the morphology and crystallographic orientation of deposited ceramics. This is being used to create tailored composites and structures. (*University of Lille; **University of Strasbourg)

11 public active projects

Research Publications

Dreger, S.A., Bowles, C., Chester, A.H., Batten, P. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Static, rotary and dynamic conditions affect phenotype and function of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on 3-d scaffolds'. European Society of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain, 2-6 September 2006.

Dreger, S.A., Bowles, C., Chester, A.H., Batten, P., Czernuszka, J.T., Yacoub, M.H. and Taylor, P.M. (2006). 'Influence of static, rotary and dynamic conditions of seeded scaffolds'. The 10th Annual Hilton Head Workshop and 2nd Biennial Heart Valve Meeting. Advances in Innovative Technologies and Tissue Engineering for the Treatment of Heart Valve Disease, 2nd March 2006.

Dreger, S.A., Thomas, P., Sachlos, E., Chester, A.H., Czernuszka, J.T., Taylor, P.M. and Yacoub, M.H. (2006). 'Potential for synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins by valve interstitial cells seeded onto collagen scaffolds' Tissue Engineering 12(9) 2533-2540.

Liu, C.Z., Sachlos, E., Wahl, D.A., Han, Z.W. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Collagen based composite scaffolds with pre-defined channel networks for bone tissue'. ESB 2006, Nantes, France 27th Sept 2006.

Liu, C.Z., Sachlos, E., Wahl, D.A., Han, Z.W. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Manufacturing Moulds for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds using 3D Printing Techniques'. 7th National Conference of Rapid Design, Prototyping and Manufacturing, High Wycombe, UK (16th June 2006).

Sachlos, E., Gotora, D. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Collagen scaffolds reinforced with biomimetic composite nano-sized carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite crystals and shaped by rapid prototyping to contain internal microchannels' Tissue Engineering 12(9) 2479-2487.

Sachlos, E., Liu, C.Z., Wahl, D.A. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Fabrications of 3D Collagen-based Scaffolds using a 3D Printing Technique'. 7th National Conference on Rapid Design, Prototyping and Manufacturing, High Wycombe, UK 16th June 2006.

Swan, M., Meakins, J., Goodacre, T., Bucknall, D.G. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Self inflating anisotropic hydrogel tissue expanders UK Patent No. 0600336.2 9th Jan 2006'.

Taylor, P.M., Sachlos, E., Dreger, S.A., Chester, A.H., Czernuszka, J.T. and Yacoub, M.H. (2006). 'Interaction of human valve interstitial cells with collagen matrices manufactured using rapid prototyping' Biomaterials 27(13) 2733-2737.

Trancik, J.E., Czernuszka, J.T., Bell, F.I. and Viney, C. (2006). 'Nanostructural features of a spider dragline silk as revealed by electron and X-ray diffraction studies' Polymer 47(15) 5633-5642.

Wahl, D.A. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hard Tissue Repair' European Cells and Materials 11 43-56.

Wahl, D.A., Sachlos, E. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2006). 'Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hard Tissue Engineering with a Predefined Architecture and Shape'. Biosurf VI Tissue-surface interaction, Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne(EPFL), Switzerland 21-23 September 2005, 11 43-56.

Czernuszka, J.T. (2005). 'Tissue Engineering in Europe - the TEOX experience'. Medi 2005, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

Wahl, D.A., Sachlos, E. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2005). 'Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Hard Tissue Engineering with a predefined architecture and shape' European Cells and Materials 10(5) STE14.

Trancik, J.E., Czernuszka, J.T., Cockayne, D.J.H. and Viney, C.: 'Nanostructural physical and chemical information derived from the unit cell scattering amplitudes of a spider dragline silk' Polymer 46 (14) (2005) 5225-5231.

Dreger, S.A., Sachlos, E., Young, R.J., Czernuszka, J.T., Chester, A., Taylor, P. and Yacoub, M.H. (2004). Discerning mechanical properties of 3-D biological scaffolds seeded with porcine aortic valve interstitial cells. Advances in Tissue Engineering and Biology of Heart Valves. Florence.

Dreger, S.A., Thomas, P., Sachlos, E., Chester, A., Czernuszka, J.T., Taylor, P. and Yacoub, M.H. (2004). Matrix remodelling and synthesis by human valve intertitial cells in a 3-D biological scaffold. 9th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Applied Cardiovascular Biology. Savannah, Georgia.

Gotora, D. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2004). Mineralization and cross-linking techniques to improve the mechanical properties of collagenn-calcium phosphate (Coll-CaP) composites to be used as bone analogues. TCES.

Gotora, D. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2004). Mineralization and cross-linking techniques to improve the mechanical properties of collagenn-calcium phosphate (Coll-CaP) composites to be used as bone analogues. European Cells and Materials. Davos, Switzerland.

Gotora, D. and Czernuszka, J.T.: 'Mineralization and cross-linking techniques to improve the mechanical properties of collagenn-calcium phosphate (Coll-CaP) composites to be used as bone analogues.' IoM3 Materials Congress (2004)

Sachlos, E. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2004). Collagen-based scaffolds internal microchannels. 7th World Biomaterials Congress.

Sachlos, E. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2004). Controlling pore size in Collagen Scaffolds. 7th World Biomaterials Congress.

Sachlos, E. and Czernuszka, J.T. (2004). Rapid prototyping of collagen scaffolds. 7th World Biomaterials Congress.

Trancik, J.E., Czernuszka, J.T. and Bell, F. (2004). Nanoscale origins of spider dragline mechanical properties. MRS Fall Meeting.

Gotera, D.C., Czernuszka, J.T.: ‘Bone analogue systems – collagen hydroxyapatite composites’ International Research Students Conference. IIT Chennai, India. (2004) 24

Planeix J.M., Jaunky W., Duhoo T., Czernuszka J.T., Hosseini M.W. and Bres E.F.: 'A molecular teconics/crystal engineering approach for building organic/inorganic composites. Potential application to the growth control of hydroxyapatite crystals' Journal of Materials Chemistry 13, 2521-2524 (2003).

Sachlos E. and Czernuszka J.T.: 'Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review: the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds' European Cells & Materials, 29-40 (2003).

Sachlos E., Dreger S., Chester A., Czernuszka J.T., Taylor P. and Yacoub M.H.: 'Rapid prototyping for the production of customized constructs for tissue engineering of cardiac valves' Society for Heart Valve Disease, Paris, France, (2003), p.??

Sachlos E., Reis N., Ainsley C., Derby B. and Czernuszka J.T.: 'A process to make collagen scaffolds with an artificial circulatory system using rapid prototyping' Materials Research Society Symposium (Fall Meeting - Session LL Rapid Prototyping Technologies), (2002), p.??

Sachlos E., Reis N., Ainsley C., Derby B. and Czernuszka J.T.: 'Novel collagen scaffolds with predefined internal morphology made by solid freeform fabrication' Biomaterials 24, 1487-1497 (2003).

Smith P., Mummery P., Derby B., Sachlos E. and Czernuszka J.T.: 'Reconstructions of tissue scaffold internal architecture using x-ray microfocus tomography' Materials Research Society Symposium (Fall Meeting - Session LL Rapid Prototyping Technologies), (2002), Vol. 758, p.??

Projects Available

Tissue expanders
J T Czernuszka

Tissue expanders are widely used by plastic surgeons in reconstructive surgery. These are of the 'balloon' type which involves sequentially injecting fluid into the device to expand the overlying tissue. This tissue is then used elsewhere in the patient. We are developing an in situ anisotropic tissue expander for the treatment of severe cleft palates, syndactyly and tissue reconstruction following major burns. We are collaborating with plastic surgeons at the John Radcliffe Hospital and at the Radcliffe Infirmary and with colleagues at Georgia Tech in the US.

Also see homepages: Jan Czernuszka

Tissue engineering of scaffolds
J T Czernuszka

Tissue engineering is a rapidly expanding commercial and research area. To date, skin and articular cartilage have been tissue engineered and are available for clinical use. Other larger structures have been more difficult to produce. The major reason for this is the diffusion constraints imposed on the scaffold. We have developed a novel and unique method for producing three dimensional scaffolds from collagen, either by itself or as a composite with hydroxyapatite or other biopolymers. The technique involves rapid prototyping by solid freeform fabrication combined with CT/MRI data scanned directly from patients. Because we use SFF we can create a microvasculature within the scaffold ensuring that nutrients are kept supplied to cells deep within the structure. This is termed a 'platform technology' and the following examples show the breadth of tissues which can now be fabricated: bone, meniscal cartilage, heart valves, smooth muscle and arteries. We have a range of collaborations with leaders in their field both within the UK and abroad. There is scope for several projects within this general theme, depending on the interests and experience of the applicants.

Also see homepages: Jan Czernuszka

Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.