Tailored nanocrystal catalysts

Currently, industrial catalyst nanoparticles used for pollution control and chemical processing are randomly dispersed on their supports with a large variety of sizes and shapes. Within this multi-billion pound industry the main research driver is to find ways of increasing the catalytic efficiency of the precious metals used such as Pt, Pd, and Rh, or increasingly alloys of various metals. One method is to increase the surface to volume ratio of the particles, and much effort has been directed towards that goal. Another method, proposed here, is to recognise that the crystal facets of the catalyst particles all have different chemical properties. This means that highly efficient catalysts can be created by synthesising particles with particularly large fractions of highly active crystal facets. One of the central aims of this project is to develop new processing routes to allow large-scale manufacture of shape and size selected metal and oxide nanoparticles with high catalytic efficiency. The project will also involve the synthesis of core-shell nanocatalysts. Characterisation of the catalyst particles will be carried mainly with scannning tunnelling microscopy.

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