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Peter Wilshaw

Professor Peter R Wilshaw
Professor of Materials

Department of Materials
University of Oxford
16 Parks Road
Oxford OX1 3PH
UK

Tel: +44 1865 273736 (Room 276.50.15)
Tel: +44 1865 273777 (reception)
Fax: +44 1865 273783

Semiconductor Group

Summary of Interests

Characterisation of the electrical and mechanical properties of defects in semiconductors particularly with reference to photovoltaics. Development of novel passivation and gettering techniques for application to photovoltaics. The development of silicon substrates with very high resistivity which are suitable for high frequency active and passive devices. Understanding oxygen and nitrogen diffusion in silicon - Fermi level and strain effects. High resolution 2D mapping of dopant distributions in semiconductors.

Current Research Projects

Determination of grain boundary orientation in multi-crystalline silicon by photon reflection
Dr. J.D. Murphy, Dr. S. Senkader*, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
Silicon solar cells account for over 80% of the solar cell market and this market is consistently growing at up to 40% per annum. Most of the silicon used for solar cells comes in the form of multi-crystalline wafers, in which the grains are typically 1 to 20mm across. Wafer manufacturers are in urgent need of a low-cost technique which allows them quickly to identify the orientations of the grains. The project involves developing such a technique by analysing the patterns produced when a laser beam reflects from the wafer surface. The pattern analysis is expected to be similar to that carried out in electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The project is in collaboration with Dr S. Senkader of ScanWafer, Norway, who has also provided some project funding. (* REC Wafer, Norway)

New passivation processes for semiconductor surfaces
R.S. Bonilla, Dr. J.D. Murphy*, Dr. S.C. Speller, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
Silicon photovoltaics is a key technology to provide the world with renewable, inexpensive and reliable energy. Efficiency in silicon solar cells, however, continues to be limited by recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs at surfaces and interfaces. Future generations of high efficiency solar cells require cheap techniques for producing semiconductor/dielectric interfaces with very low recombination. This process is called surface passivation and the development of efficient new processes is critical to the development of next generation solar cells. This doctoral project aims to develop such new passivation processes with the potential to be applied to real cell manufacture. Surface passivation is achieved using two complementary approaches - chemical and field effect. This work will focus on the latter: Field effect passivation uses electrical charge in surface dielectric layers to repel the carriers in the semiconductor from the interface so that recombination is mainly eliminated. Our previous work has resulted in effective carrier lifetimes approaching 4ms - these are some of the highest obtained but, unlike other work, ours have been produced without the need for expensive processing which is incompatible with solar cell processing. The new work will mainly be aimed at developing techniques by which the advantageous effect of the charge can be made permanent. To do this we need to understand in detail the physics and materials science of the processes taking place and then use this knowledge to further develop them to give stability over a thirty year time frame. The student performing the work will be involved in deposition of the dielectrics using semiconductor facilities, characterisation of their properties using advanced electronic techniques and then modification by charge deposition and further testing.(*University of Warwick)

Development of novel geometry silicon solar cells
G. Martins, Dr. J.D. Murphy, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
Silicon based solar cells are already sufficiently efficient to form a viable renewable energy source in the coming decades. Some estimates predict they will deliver more than 30% of the world's energy needs in the foreseeable future. However, they are presently too expensive and research is needed to drive costs down. This project continues work in the group to develop a novel solar cell geometry that would allow the use of poor quality but very cheap silicon whilst maintaining high electrical efficiencies.

New Detectors for Transmission Electron Microscopy
Professor A.I. Kirkland, Dr. G. Moldovan, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw, Dr. C. Lin, Dr. L. Cervera
Current generation imaging detectors for Transmission Electron Microscopy rely on a complex electron-photon conversion chain with the photons being detected by Charge Coupled Devices. As a result the overall sensitivity of these systems is poor and they are limited in their frame rate. We aim to construct the next generation of direct electron detector and this project will involve both computation and ultimately fabrication of a prototype device. (Funded by Leverhulme Trust)

Secondary electron mapping of doped regions in semiconductors
Dr. A. Chee*, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
The secondary electron (SE) signal in an SEM is used to produce 2-dimensional maps of doped regions in silicon and III-V semiconductors. SE images of cross-sections of doped silicon devices reveal the type and extent of doping. Quantitative information about the observed contrast has been obtained experimentally. A model has been proposed and is being developed to account for the effect and new measurements are being made using energy filtering of the secondary electrons. (*Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge)

Dislocation control in silicon using nitrogen implantation
Dr. J.D. Murphy, Professor R.J. Falster*, Dr. A. Jain**, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
With the advent of advanced device technologies often involving heterostructures and strained layers there is an increasing problem with the generation and movement of dislocations in the near surface regions of Si wafers. This project is investigating the possibility of using ion implanted nitrogen as a high concentration source of electrically inactive nitrogen which can subsequently diffuse to and hence "lock" near surface dislocations so preventing the damaging effects that would be caused by their movement. In collaboration with Texas Instruments and MEMC Electronic Materials Inc.. (*also of MEMC Electronic Materials Inc. **Texas Instruments, USA).

Defect engineering to improve the cost-effectiveness of multicrystalline silicon solar cells
Dr. J.D. Murphy, M. Wu, G. Martins, Professor R.J. Falster*, Dr. P.R. Wilshaw
Silicon solar cells account for over 80% of the solar cell market and this market is consistently growing at up to 40% per annum. Most of the silicon used for solar cells comes in the form of multi-crystalline wafers sliced from ingots of cast silicon. This material contains relatively high concentrations of metallic impurities, dislocations and grain boundaries, all of which enhance electron-hole recombination and hence reduce solar cell efficiency. This project aims to develop a range of novel ideas originating from the Semiconductor Group in Oxford. Ideas being developed include the use of low temperature processes to clean-up the material ("gettering") and removing defects from the material in other novel ways. The research relies on a wide range of experimental techniques, including basic electrical characterisation (IV, CV etc), electron beam induced current (EBIC), quasi-steady state photoconductance decay (QSS-PCD), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The research is performed in collaboration with leading suppliers of silicon to the photovoltaic industry (*also of MEMC Electronic Materials Inc.).

7 public active projects

Research Publications

Very low surface recombination velocity in n-type c-Si using extrinsic field effect passivation
Ruy S. Bonilla, Frederick Woodcock and Peter R. Wilshaw
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 054102 (2014)
Nanocrystalline SiC formed by annealing of a-SiC:H on Si substrates: A study of dopant interdiffusion
Manuel Schnabel, Charlotte Weiss, Philipp Löper, Mariaconcetta Canino, Caterina Summonte, Peter R. Wilshaw and Stefan Janz.
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 024315 (2014)
A technique for field effect surface passivation for silicon solar cells
Ruy S. Bonilla and Peter R. Wilshaw
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 232903 (2014)
Boron Diffusion in Nanocrystalline 3C-SiC
M. Schnabel, A. Siddique, M. Canino, C. Weiss, T. Rachow, P. Löper, C. Summonte, S. Mirabella, S. Janz, P. Wilshaw.
Applied Physics Letters 104, 213108 (2014)
On the location and stability of charge in SiO2/SiNx dielectric double layers used for silicon surface passivation
Ruy S. Bonilla, Christian Reichel, Martin Hermle and Peter R. Wilshaw
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 144105, 2014
Controlled field effect surface passivation of crystalline n-type silicon and its application to back-contact silicon solar cells
R. S. Bonilla, C. Reichel, M. Hermle, S. Senkader, and P. Wilshaw.
In 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014, pp. 05710576.
Electrical and Optical Characterisation of Silicon Nanocrystals Embedded in SiC
M. Schnabel, P. Löper, M. Canino, S.A. Dyakov, M. Allegrezza, M. Bellettato, J. López-Vidrier, S. Hernández, C. Summonte, B.
Garrido, P.R. Wilshaw, S. Janz, Solid State Phenomena, 205-6 (2014) 480-485
Electric Field Effect Surface Passivation for Silicon Solar Cells
Ruy S. Bonilla, Christian Reichel, Martin Hermle, Peter R. Wilshaw
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 205-206, 2014, Pages 346-351
Thermal oxidation and encapsulation of silicon–carbon nanolayers
Manuel Schnabel, Philipp Löper, Sebastian Gutsch, Peter R. Wilshaw, Stefan Janz
Thin Solid Films, 527 (2013) 193-199
Stable Field Effect Surface Passivation of n-type Cz Silicon
Ruy S. Bonilla, Peter R. Wilshaw
Energy Procedia, Volume 38, 2013, Pages 816–822
Preliminary investigation of flash sintering of SiC
E. Zapata-Solvas, S. Bonilla, P. R. Wilshaw, and R. I. Todd
J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol. 33, no. 11-12, Jun. 2013.
Chemical etching to dissolve dislocation cores in multicrystalline silicon
N.J. Gregori, J.D. Murphy, J.M. Sykes, P.R. Wilshaw
Physica B, Volume 407, Issue 15, 1 August 2012, Pages 2970–2973
Reduced microwave attenuation in coplanar waveguides using deep level impurity compensated Czochralski-silicon substrates
A. Abuelgasim, K. Mallik, P. Ashburn, D.M. Jordan, P.R. Wilshaw, R. J. Falster, C.H. de Groot
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 26 072001 (2011)
The effect of impurity-induced lattice strain and Fermi level position on low temperature oxygen diffusion in silicon
Z. Zeng, J.D. Murphy, R.J. Falster, X. Ma, D. Yang, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Applied Physics, 109 063532 (2011)
Determination of grain orientations in multi-crystalline silicon by reflectometry
Y. Wang, J.D. Murphy, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 157 H884 (2010)
The development of semi-insulating silicon substrates for microwave devices
D. M. Jordan, R. H. Haslam, K. Mallik, R. J. Falster, P. R. Wilshaw
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 157 H540 (2010)
An investigation into fracture of multi-crystalline silicon
B.R. Mansfield, D.E.J. Armstrong, P.R. Wilshaw, J.D. Murphy
Solid State Phenomena, 156-158 55 (2010)
Semi-insulating silicon for microwave devices
D.M. Jordan, K. Mallik, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Solid State Phenomena, 156-158 101 (2010)
A novel nano-porous alumina biomaterial with potential for loading with bioactive materials
A.R. Walpole, Z. Xia, C.W. Wilson, J.T. Triffitt, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A, 90 46 (2009)
Secondary electron emission contrast of quantum wells in GaAs p-i-n junctions
E. Grunbaum, Z. Barkay, Y. Shapira, K.W.J. Barnham, D.B. Bushnell, N.J. Ekins-Daukes, M. Mazzer, P. Wilshaw
Microscopy and Microanalysis, 15 125 (2009)
Cathodoluminescence assessment of annealed silicon and a novel technique for estimating minority carrier lifetime in silicon
K.J. Fraser, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Materials Science and Engineering B, 159-160 194 (2009)
Nitrogen in silicon: diffusion at 500 to 700°C and interaction with dislocations
C.R. Alpass, J.D. Murphy, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Materials Science and Engineering B, 159-160 95 (2009)
Measurements of dislocation locking by near-surface ion-implanted nitrogen in Czochralski silicon
C.R. Alpass, A. Jain, J.D. Murphy, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 156 H669 (2009)
Nitrogen diffusion and interaction with dislocations in single-crystal silicon
C.R. Alpass, J.D. Murphy, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Applied Physics, 105 013519 (2009)
The development of semi-insulating silicon substrates for microwave devices
D.M. Jordan, R.H. Haslam, K. Mallik, P.R. Wilshaw
ECS Transactions, 16 41 (2008)
Measurements of dislocation locking by near-surface ion-implanted nitrogen in Czochralski silicon
C.R. Alpass, J.D. Murphy, A. Jain, P.R. Wilshaw
ECS Transactions, 16 249 (2008)
Cathodoluminescence assessment of low temperature gettering in silicon and a novel technique for estimating bulk minority carrier lifetime in silicon
K.J. Fraser, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
ECS Transactions, 16 273 (2008)
Counting electrons in transmission electron microscopes
G. Moldovan, X. Li, P. Wilshaw, A.I. Kirkland
Microscopy and Microanalysis, 14 912 (2008)
Thin silicon strip devices for direct electron detection in transmission electron microscopy
G. Moldovan, X. Li, P. Wilshaw, A.I. Kirkland
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 591 134 (2008)
Piezospectroscopic measurement of the stress field around an indentation crack tip in ruby using SEM cathodoluminescence
R.I. Todd, D. Stowe, S. Galloway, D. Barnes, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of the European Ceramics Society, 28 2049 (2008)
The role of dislocations in producing efficient near-bandgap luminescence from silicon
K. Fraser, D. Stowe, S. Galloway, S. Senkader, R. Falster, P. Wilshaw
Physica Status Solidi C, 4 2977 (2007)
Out-diffusion of nitrogen from float-zone silicon measured by dislocation locking
C. R. Alpass, J.D. Murphy, A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Physica Status Solidi A, 204 2256 (2007)
Semi-insulating Czochralski-silicon for radio frequency applications
K. Mallik, C.H. de Groot, P. Ashburn, P.R. Wilshaw
Proceedings of the 36th European Solid-State Device Research Conference, 435 (2006)
Enhanced oxygen diffusion in highly-doped p-type Czochralski silicon
J.D. Murphy, P.R. Wilshaw, B.C. Pygall, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster
Journal of Applied Physics, 100 103531 (2006)
Nitrogen-doped silicon: mechanical, transport and electrical properties
J.D. Murphy, C.R. Alpass, A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, D. Emiroglu, J.H. Evans-Freeman, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
ECS Transactions, 3 239 (2006)
Nitrogen in silicon: transport and mechanical properties
J.D. Murphy, C.R. Alpass, A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 253 113 (2006)
Oxygen transport in Czochralski silicon investigated by dislocation locking experiments
J.D. Murphy, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Materials Science and Engineering B, 134 176 (2006)
Efficient room temperature near-band gap luminescence by gettering in ion implanted silicon
D.J. Stowe, K.J. Fraser, S.A. Galloway, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Springer Proceedings in Physics, 107 35 (2005)
The electric field and dopant distribution in p-i-n structures observed by ionisation potential (dopant contrast) microscopy in the HRSEM
E. Grunbaum, Z. Barkay, Y. Shapira, K. Barnham, D.B. Bushnell, N.J. Elkins-Daukes, M. Mazzer, P.R. Wilshaw
Springer Proceedings in Physics, 107 503 (2005)
Transmission ion channeling analysis of isolated 60° misfit dislocations
M.B.H. Breese, L. Huang, E.J. Teo, P.J.C. King, P.R. Wilshaw
Appl. Phys. Lett., 87 211907 (2005)
The influence of nitrogen on dislocation locking in float-zone silicon
J.D. Murphy, A. Giannattasio, C.R. Alpass, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Solid State Phenomena, 108-109 139 (2005)
High resolution deep level transient spectroscopy applied to extended defects in silicon
J.H. Evans-Freeman, D. Emiroglu, K.D. Vernon-Parry, J.D. Murphy, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 17 S2219 (2005)
Oxygen and nitrogen transport in silicon investigated by dislocation locking experiments
A. Giannattasio, J.D. Murphy, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152 G460 (2005)
Nitrogen transport in float-zone and Czochralski silicon investigated by dislocation locking experiments
J.D. Murphy, A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Phys. Status Solidi A, 202 926 (2005)
Impurity locking of dislocations in silicon
A. Giannattasio, J.D. Murphy, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Proceedings of the 206th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, High Purity Silicon VIII, Honolulu, USA (2004)
Formation of highly adherent nano-porous alumina on Ti-based substrates: a novel bone implant coating
E.P. Briggs, A.R. Walpole, P.R. Wilshaw, M. Karlsson, E. Palsgard
J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. M., 15 1021 (2004)
A room temperature cathodoluminescence study of dislocations in silicon
D.J. Stowe, S.A. Galloway, S. Senkader, K. Mallik, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 179 67 (2004)
High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of dopants in p-i-n junctions with quantum wells
Z. Barkay, E. Grunbaum, Y. Shapira, P. Wilshaw, K. Barnham, B. Bushnell, N.J. Ekins-Daukes, M. Mazzer
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 179 143 (2004)
The role of prismatic dislocation loops in the generation of glide dislocations in Cz-silicon
A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Comp. Mater. Sci., 30 131 (2004)
Dislocation locking in silicon by oxygen and oxygen transport at low temperatures
S. Senkader, A. Giannattasio, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Solid State Phenomena, 95-96 43 (2004)
Schottky diode back contacts for high frequency capacitance studies on semiconductors
K. Mallik, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Solid State Electronics, 48 231 (2004)
Near-band gap luminescence at room temperature from dislocations in silicon
D.J. Stowe, S.A. Galloway, S. Senkader, K. Mallik, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Physica B, 340 710 (2003)
Dislocation locking by nitrogen impurities in FZ-silicon
A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Physica B, 340 996 (2003)
Nano-porous alumina coatings for improved bone implant interfaces
A.R. Walpole, E.P. Briggs, M. Karlsson, E. Palsgard, P.R. Wilshaw
Materialwiss Werkst, 34 1064 (2003)
The use of numerical simulation to predict the unlocking stress of dislocations in Cz-silicon wafers
A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, S. Azam, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Microelectron. Eng., 70 125 (2003)
'Semi-insulating' silicon using deep level impurity doping: problems and potential
K. Mallik, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Semicond. Sci. Tech., 18 517 (2003)
Initial in vitro interaction of osteoblasts with nano-porous alumina
M. Karlsson, E. Palsgard, P.R. Wilshaw, L. Di Silvio
Biomaterials, 24 3039 (2003)
Fabrication of nanocrystalline aluminium islands using double-surface anodization
S.E. Booth, C.D. Marsh, K. Mallik, V. Baranauskas, J.M. Sykes, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 21 316 (2003)
Dislocation locking by oxygen in silicon: New insights to oxygen diffusion at low temperatures
S. Senkader, A. Giannattasio, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Elec. Soc. S., 2002 171 (2002)
'Generation of dislocation glide loops in Czochralski silicon
A. Giannattasio, S. Senkader, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 14 12981 (2002)
On the dislocation-oxygen interactions in Czochralski-grown Si: oxygen diffusion and binding at low temperatures
S. Senkader, A. Giannattasio, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 14 13141 (2002)
Onset of slip in silicon containing oxide precipitates
K. Jurkschat, S. Senkader, P.R. Wilshaw, D. Gambaro, R.J. Falster
Journal of Applied Physics, 90 3219 (2001)
Oxygen-dislocation interactions in silicon at temperatures below 700 degrees C: Dislocation locking and oxygen diffusion
S. Senkader, P.R. Wilshaw, R.J. Falster
Journal of Applied Physics, 89 4803 (2001)
On the locking of dislocations by oxygen in silicon
S. Senkader, K. Jurkschat, D. Gambaro, R.J. Falster, P.R. Wilshaw
Philosophical Magazine A, 81 759 (2001)
Large area gridded field emitter arrays using anodised aluminium
E.R. Holland, Y. Li, P. Abbott, P.R. Wilshaw
Displays, 21 99 (2000)
Residual gas effects on the emission characteristics of silicon field emitter arrays
M.J. Gilkes, D. Nicolaescu, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 18 948 (2000)
Synthesis of high density arrays of nanoscaled gridded field emitters based on anodic alumina
Y. Li, E.R. Holland, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 18 994 (2000)
Mechanism for secondary electron dopant contrast in the SEM
C.P. Sealy, M.R. Castell, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Electron. Microsc., 49 311 (2000)
A study of oxygen dislocation interactions in CZ-Si
S. Senkader, K. Jurkschat, P.R. Wilshaw, R.J. Falster
Materials Science and Engineering B, 73 111 (2000)
The segregation behaviour of oxygen at dislocations in silicon
S. Senkader, P.R. Wilshaw, D. Gambaro, R.J. Falster
Solid State Phenomena, 70 321 (1999)
Locking of dislocations by oxygen in Cz-silicon
S. Senkader, K. Jurkschat, P.R. Wilshaw, R.J. Falster
Elec. Soc. S., 99 280 (1999)
Nonlithographic technique for the production of large area high density gridded field emission sources
E.R. Holland, M.T. Harrison, M. Huang, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 17 580 (1999)
Microfabrication and characterization of gridded polycrystalline silicon field emitter devices
S.E. Huq, M. Huang, P.R. Wilshaw, P.D. Prewett
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 16 796 (1998)
A comparison between the use of EBIC and IBIC microscopy for semiconductor defect analysis
M.B.H. Breese, A. Amaku, P.R. Wilshaw
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 137 1355 (1998)
Application of secondary electron dopant contrast imaging to InP/InGaAsP laser structures
C.P. Sealy, M.R. Castell, C.L. Reynolds, P.R. Wilshaw
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 157 561 (1997)
A study of the activation of CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells using OBIC
P.R. Edwards, S.A. Galloway, P.R. Wilshaw, K. Durose
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 157 583 (1997)
Carrier recombination at defects in silicon: The effect of transition metals and hydrogen passivation
P.R. Wilshaw, A.M. Blood, C.F. Braban
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 157 623 (1997)
Anodisation of gridded silicon field emitter arrays
M. Huang, S.E. Huq, P.D. Prewett, PD, et al.
IVMC '97 - 10th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference, Technical Digest 87 (1997)
Enhanced field emission from polysilicon emitters using porous silicon
S.E. Pullen, M. Huang, S.E. Huq, et al.
IVMC '96 - 9th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference, Technical Digest 211 (1996)
Defect imaging and channeling studies using channeling scanning transmission ion microscopy
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.J.M. Smulders, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 118 426 (1996)
Characterization of porous silicon field emitter properties
E.C. Boswell, M. Huang, G.D.W. Smith, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 14 1895 (1996)
Polycrystalline silicon field emitters
E.C. Boswell, S.E. Huq, M. Huang, P.D. Prewett, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 14 1910 (1996)
Modelling of the field emission microtriode with emitter covered with porous silicon
D. Nicolaescu, V. Filip, P.R. Wilshaw
Appl. Surf. Sci., 94-5 79 (1996)
Imaging of the strain field around precipitate particles using transmission ion channeling
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, D. Meekeson, P.J.M. Smulders, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Journal of Applied Physics, 80 2671 (1996)
A study of the effects of post-deposition treatments on CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells using high resolution optical beam induced current
S.A. Galloway, A.W. Brinkman, K. Durose, P.R. Wilshaw, A.J. Holland
Appl. Phys. Lett., 68 3725 (1996)
SEM imaging of contrast arising from different doping concentrations in semiconductors
C.P. Sealy, M.R. Castell, A.J. Wilkinson, et al.
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 146 609 (1995)
Application of transmission ion channeling to the imaging of stacking-faults
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 104 233 (1995)
Transmission ion channeling images of crystal defects
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.R. Wilshaw, P.J.M. Smulders and G.W. Grime
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 99 419 (1995)
Studies of porous silicon field emitters
E. Boswell, T.Y. Seong, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 13 437 (1995)
Electron beam induced current investigations of transition metal impurities at extended defects in silicon
P.R. Wilshaw, T.S. Fell
J. Electrochem. Soc., 142 4298 (1995)
Imaging of deep defects using transmission ion channeling
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 103 365 (1995)
Backscattered electron contrast on cross-sections of interfaces and multilayers in the scanning electron-microscope
A. Konkol, G.R. Booker, P.R. Wilshaw
Ultramicroscopy, 58 233 (1995)
Observation of a blocking to channeling transition for MeV protons at stacking-faults in silicon
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.J.M. Smulders, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Phys. Rev. Lett., 74 411 (1995)
Stacking-fault imaging using transmission ion channeling
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.R. Wilshaw, G.W. Grime
Phys. Rev. B, 51 2732 (1995)
Crystal defect imaging using transmission ion channeling
P. King, M. Breese, P. Wilshaw, et al.
Ann. Chim.: Sci. Mat., 19 257 (1994)
Studies of porous silicon field emitters
E. Boswell, T.Y. Seong, P.R. Wilshaw
IVMC '94 - 7th International Vacuum Microelectronics Conference 342-345 (1994)
Electron-beam-induced activity of defects in silicon
P.R. Wilshaw, T.S. Fell, C.A. Amaku, M.D. de Coteau
Materials Science and Engineering B, 24 8 (1994)
An electron-beam-induced current study of dislocations in GaAs
S.A. Galloway, P.R. Wilshaw, A. Konkol
Materials Science and Engineering B, 24 91 (1994)
Deconvolution method to obtain composition profiles from SEM backscattered electron signal profiles for bulk specimens
A. Konkol, P.R. Wilshaw, G.R. Booker
Ultramicroscopy, 55 183 (1994)
Field-emission from pyramidal cathodes covered in porous silicon
P.R. Wilshaw, E.C. Boswell
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 12 662 (1994)
An EBIC investigation of alpha, beta and screw dislocations in gallium-arsenide
S.A. Galloway, P.R. Wilshaw, T.S. Fell
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 134 71 (1993)
Imaging of semiconductor defects using ion channeling
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, P.R. Wilshaw, et al.
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 134 153 (1993)
Dislocation imaging with a scanning proton microscope using channeling scanning-transmission ion microscopy (CSTIM)
P.J.C. King, M.B.H. Breese, G.R. Booker, J. Whitehurst, P. R. Wilshaw, G. W. Grime, F. Watt, M. J. Goringe
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, 77 320 (1993)
Emission characteristics and morphology of wet etched cathodes in p-type silicon
E.C. Boswell, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 11 412 (1993)
EBIC investigations of dislocations and their interactions with impurities in silicon
T.S. Fell, P.R. Wilshaw, M.D. Decoteau
Phys. Status Solidi A, 138 695 (1993)
The low field simulation and study of magnetization in high-Tc superconductors at 77K
J.N. Jones, P.R. Wilshaw, D. Dewhughes, K.A. Johnson
Supercond. Sci. Tech., 5 S351 (1992)
Flux-creep in high-temperature superconductors at low fields at 77K
J.N. Jones, P.R. Wilshaw, D. Dewhughes, K.A. Johnson
Supercond. Sci. Tech., 5 S355 (1992)
Gettering of copper in silicon - precipitation at extended surface-defects
M.D. Decoteau, P.R. Wilshaw, R. Falster
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 117 231 (1991)
Quantitative EBIC investigations of deformation-induced and copper decorate dislocations in silicon
T.S. Fell, P.R. Wilshaw
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 117 733 (1991)
Backscattered electron compositional analysis of interfaces in bulk specimens using a deconvolution technique
P.R. Wilshaw, A. Konkol, G.R. Booker
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 117 781 (1991)
The effect of different transition-metals on the recombination efficiency of dislocations
T.S. Fell, P.R. Wilshaw
J. Phys. IV, 1 211 (1991)
EBIC contrast of defects in semiconductors
P.R. Wilshaw, T.S. Fell, M.D. Coteau
J. Phys. IV, 1 3 (1991)
Gettering of copper to oxidation induced stacking-faults in silicon
M.D. Decoteau, P.R. Wilshaw, R. Falster
Phys. Status Solidi A, 117 403 (1990)
Lattice-relaxation of strained GaSb GaAs epitaxial layers grown by MOCVD
R.E. Mallard, P.R. Wilshaw, N.J. Mason, et al.
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 100 331 (1989)
The electronic-properties of dislocations in silicon
P.R. Wilshaw, T.S. Fell
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 104 85 (1989)
Recombination at dislocations in the depletion region of silicon
T.S. Fell, P.R. Wilshaw
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 104 227 (1989)
The experimental requirements for quantitative measurement of carrier recombination at defects in semiconductors using the EBIC technique
P.R. Wilshaw
Ultramicroscopy, 31 177 (1989)
The chemistry and properties of grain-boundaried in chemically thinned Y1BA2CU3O7-X
L.T. Romano, P.R. Wilshaw, N.J. Long, C.R.M. Grovenor
Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 109 293 (1989)
High-resolution microchemistry and structure of grain-boundaries in bulk Y1BA2CU3O7-X
L.T. Romano, P.R. Wilshaw, N.J. Long, C.R.M. Grovenor
Supercond. Sci. Tech., 1 285 (1989)
The temperature-dependence of EBIC contrast from individual dislocations in silicon
A. Ourmazd, P.R. Wilshaw, G.R. Booker
J. Phys. Paris, 44 289 (1983)
Some aspects of the measurements of electrical effects of dislocations in silicon using a computerized EBIC system
P.R. Wilshaw, A. Ourmazd, G.R. Booker
J. Phys. Paris, 44 445 (1983)
The electrical behaviour of individual dislocations, Shockley partials and stacking-fault ribbons in silicon
A. Ourmazd, P.R. Wilshaw, G.R. Booker
Physica B & C, 116 600 (1983)
Measurment of contrast from individual dislocations by lock-in in EBIC
A. Ourmazd, P.R. Wilshaw, R.M. Cripps
Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser., 61 519 (1982)

Projects Available

Exploiting extrinsic passivation on antireflection coatings for high efficiency silicon solar cells
Supervisors Prof PR Wilshaw and Dr S Bonilla

In order to move to a low-carbon future, and avoid the worst effects of anthropogenic climate change, continuing reductions in the cost of renewable energy are required. The semiconductor group at Oxford Materials, in collaboration with international research partners at Fraunhofer ISE in Germany and the University of New South Wales in Australia as well as industry partners, is working to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. Graduate students would work as part of a dedicated group of researchers on state-of-the-art techniques for improving the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells, which account for over 90% of all currently manufactured solar cells.

Silicon solar cells capture solar energy when light is absorbed near the cell’s surface. The surface of the cell represents a major material defect where loss of charge carriers may occur. The reduction of charge loss at the surface, termed passivation, is hence a critical feature requiring improvement. For solar energy to be cost competitive with other technologies, manufacturing costs of solar cells must be brought down while maintaining device performance. This project aims to explore a new generation of cost effective dielectric coatings that provide optimal passivation using the technologies proposed and patented by the group, as well as improving the optical qualities over current industrial films. The student performing the work will be involved in deposition of dielectrics using semiconductor facilities and characterisation of their properties using electronic techniques. These films will then be extrinsically treated to exploit their passivation characteristics.

Also see homepages: Peter Wilshaw

Advanced Gettering of Multicrystalline Silicon for Commercial Solar Cells
Prof PR Wilshaw and Dr S Bonilla

In order to move to a low-carbon future, and avoid the worst effects of anthropogenic climate change, continuing reductions in the cost of renewable energy are required. The semiconductor group at Oxford Materials, in collaboration with international research partners at Fraunhofer ISE in Germany and the University of New South Wales in Australia as well as industry partners, is working to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. Graduate students would work as part of a dedicated group of researchers on state-of-the-art techniques for improving the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells, which account for over 90% of all currently manufactured solar cells. Multicrystalline silicon is the most common wafer material for current solar cell production. As multicrystalline solar cell efficiencies increase, recombination due to impurities in the material becomes more and more important. These impurities may be present in the silicon feedstock, or introduced during casting of the multicrystalline ingot. The graduate student will work on developing advanced gettering techniques to remove these impurities from multicrystalline wafers, and on characterizing the improvement in device parameters that may be achieved. This will be done in collaboration with the atom probe tomography unit at Oxford Materials. These technologies may improve the performance of commercial multicrystalline silicon or enable the use of materials currently considered too contaminated for solar cell production. The student would work closely with a range of wafer suppliers, as well as international research partners to ensure the commercial relevance of the work.

Also see homepages: Peter Wilshaw

Hydrogen Passivation of Defect Engineered Silicon Solar Cells
Prof PR Wilshaw and Dr S Bonilla

In order to move to a low-carbon future, and avoid the worst effects of anthropogenic climate change, continuing reductions in the cost of renewable energy are required. The semiconductor group at Oxford Materials, in collaboration with international research partners at Fraunhofer ISE in Germany and the University of New South Wales in Australia as well as industry partners, is working to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. Graduate students would work as part of a dedicated group of researchers on state-of-the-art techniques for improving the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells, which account for over 90% of all currently manufactured solar cells. While multicrystalline silicon is currently the most cost effective material for the fabrication of solar cells, the high levels of defects and impurities present in this material limits the cell efficiencies that can be obtained. This is mostly through recombination of excited charge carriers at defect sites in the silicon bulk. The two most common approaches for reducing bulk recombination in crystalline silicon solar cells are defect engineering via gettering and hydrogen passivation. While both approaches are capable of reducing the recombination rate by more than an order of magnitude they are typically optimized separately. The graduate student would work in close collaboration with the world-leading hydrogen passivation group at the University of New South Wales to develop and apply hydrogen passivation techniques to defect engineered silicon. This would allow observation of how gettering techniques affect the ability of hydrogen to passivate the impurities remaining in the silicon and subsequently address optimization of both processing techniques.

Also see homepages: Peter Wilshaw

Stabilization of world record surface passivation for high efficiency silicon solar cells
Supervisors Prof PR Wilshaw and Dr S Bonilla

In order to move to a low-carbon future, and avoid the worst effects of anthropogenic climate change, continuing reductions in the cost of renewable energy are required. The semiconductor group at Oxford Materials, in collaboration with international research partners at Fraunhofer ISE in Germany and the University of New South Wales in Australia as well as industry partners, is working to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. Graduate students would work as part of a dedicated group of researchers on state-of-the-art techniques for improving the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells, which account for over 90% of all currently manufactured solar cells.

Efficiency in the most advanced silicon solar cells is limited by recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs at surfaces and interfaces. Future generations of industrial high efficiency solar cells will require cost effective techniques for producing semiconductor/dielectric interfaces with very low rates of recombination. The process of creating these low recombination interfaces is known as surface passivation and its development is critical to the next generation solar cells. Existing work in the semiconductor group has produced record breaking surface passivation using charge extrinsically added to dielectric coatings. The problem, however, is that the passivation produced is not stable over a period of years as required for solar cells in the field. This project aims to develop new techniques that will stabilise the charge in dielectrics to produce superior and industrially relevant passivation of silicon surfaces.

The student performing the work will be involved in cleanroom processing and dielectric characterisation using electronic and optical techniques. They will have the opportunity to apply the passivation techniques to the most advanced silicon solar cell structures developed by research institutions around the world.

Also see homepages: Peter Wilshaw

Novel Photon Capture Methods for Multicrystalline Silicon
Prof PR Wilshaw and Dr S Bonilla

In order to move to a low-carbon future, and avoid the worst effects of anthropogenic climate change, continuing reductions in the cost of renewable energy are required. The semiconductor group at Oxford Materials, in collaboration with international research partners at Fraunhofer ISE in Germany and the University of New South Wales in Australia as well as industry partners, is working to reduce the cost of photovoltaic cells. Graduate students would work as part of a dedicated group of researchers on state-of-the-art techniques for improving the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells, which account for over 90% of all currently manufactured solar cells. Texturing of multicrystalline silicon wafers for solar cell production has been an ongoing concern for cell manufacturers. While anisotropic texturing of mono-crystalline silicon can reduce the weighted average reflection (WAR) of bare silicon to below 10%, most approaches on multicrystalline materials yield WAR’s in excess of 25%. Furthermore the traditional approach of using acidic etching solutions to preferentially attack defect sites is incompatible with new wafer sawing techniques. In this project the graduate student will develop novel texturing approaches for multicrystalline silicon. These techniques will be evaluated in collaboration with international research institutions and industrial partners including cell manufactures and wafer suppliers. If successful this technology will reduce the cost of solar electricity by realizing superior optical performance with a reduced cost of production.

Also see homepages: Peter Wilshaw

Also see a full listing of New projects available within the Department of Materials.